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Revision Notes: HISTORY [SURGERY]

1842: Crawford W Long (America) used ether as an anaesthetic while
operating on a neck tumour (but did not publish details of his
1845: Horace Wells (America) tried unsuccessfully to demonstrate that
laughing gas would allow him to extract a tooth painlessly.
1846: Dr JC…

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More causes for improvements in surgery
The number of operations grew hugely through the century,
and surgeons became skilled at internal operations (1880s:
first appendectomy; 1896: first open-heart surgery) and even
tried (unsuccessfully) to transplant organs such as thyroid
glands and testicles. Various factors pushed the process along:
1. The…


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