Revision notes on Socialisation and Culture

Revision Notes containing studies, concepts and agents of socialisation.

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Socialisation and Culture!
Page 1 ­ Definitions
Page 2 ­ Types of Culture
Page 3 ­ Process of Socialisation
Page 4 ­ 10 - Agents of Socialisation (Family, Media,
Peers, Work Place, Religion and Education).
Page 11 ­ 28 Role of socialisation (Family, Media
etc.) in the creation of identities (Gender, Age, Class
and Ethnicity).
Page 29-31- Fifty Two Mark Question

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First Exam ­ 27th May ­ Socialisation/Culture etc.
Culture ­ The culture of a society is the way of life of its members,
the collection of ideas and habits which they share and transmit
from generation to generation.
Norms ­ Social expectations or rules about how people should or
should not behave. Social norms are accepted ways of thinking and
behaving, but may not be formally written down.…read more

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Types of Culture
High Culture ­ Linked with the elite or upper class in society, and
is associated with the arts (Ballet, Opera)
Popular Culture ­ Associated with shallow activities enjoyed and
accessed by the masses (Soap operas, Football, Mcd's)
Consumer Culture ­ Related to the way in which we use the goods
we have in society, and is based on the economics of the culture.
Example, the UK is a large consumer society. Goods available on
high street, internet, shopping centres.…read more

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Process of Socialisation
Nature/Nurture ­ Nature is associated with those who would argue
that behaviour is determined by innate or inherited factors.
Nurture side argue that all behaviour is determined by experience ­
Baby's mind at birth is a blank slate, on which experience writes.
Nature argues they're born with a `blue-print' ­ behaviour that isn't
apparent at birth and will develop over time.
Primary Socialisation (Family) ­ Early years of life are important in
the learning process.…read more

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Agents of Socialisation
The Family ­ is seen as an important building block of
society. We may learn formal skills; Driving, cooking,
gardening etc. And informal skills; manners, obedience,
respect etc.
How family socialises us regarding:
o Gender Roles: likely to impact a child's socialisation. E.g.
Father goes to work (breadwinner). Impacts how he/she
will view gender roles in family life. Share the same value
that men are providers and women are carers.
o Class: Mealtimes sometimes portrayed as being class
based.…read more

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Peer Groups ­ One of the most important, especially in
teenage years. It is a group where members share a similar
status in society. Often similar age. Share similar social
situation; students, pupils. Conform to peer group norms in
order to be part of that peer group. Vital role in forming
our identity. Source of understanding and support.
How Peers socialise us regarding:
o Gender ­ Becoming more important to be viewed as
appropriately masculine/feminine.…read more

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Education: Compulsory education for 5-16yr olds. School
is one of main agents in secondary socialisation. Takes place
without immediate family/carers. Learn formal skills
(reading, writing) and informal (working with others).
How Education socialises us regarding:
o Gender: Children enter education system with an acquired
sense of gender. Informal and formal curriculum gives out
gendered messages. Boys play football, girls talk/watch boys.
Informal: Posters on wall, general behaviour. Formal: Subjects
they are taught.
o Class: Main influence comes from type of school a person
attends.…read more

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Workplace: Helps us learn many things or skills. Learn to
take responsibility and behave like an adult. Gives us a role
in society. Becomes part of our identity.
How Work socialises us regarding:
o Gender: Women become more economically active-financially
independent. Less jobs for men in steel industries. A person's
gender identity is fluid and shaped and constructed through
their experiences, which are often quite gendered.
o Class: Strong association of manual work with working class,
and non-manual work with middle class.…read more

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How the Media socialises us regarding:
o Gender: Stereotypes such as super heroes and sexy
females are found within popular culture. Exposure to
media from an early age helps to reinforce what has
already been learned in the family, and constructs, for
many people, a deeper, internalised layer of gendered
o Class: Media representations of different social classes also
influence social class identity. `Shameless' shows working
class as aggressive, assertive and good at playing the social
security system.…read more

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Religion: Includes beliefs, rituals, practices and everyday
rules. Christianity is dominant religion in UK. Some say religion
`keeps society together'.
How religion socialises us regarding:
o Gender: As contemporary UK has become increasingly
secular, role of religions, in the process of constructing
gender identities has declined. Religion can affect males
and females. E.g. different dress- Muslim women wear
hijab, keep bodies covered. Jewish men wear skull cap.
o Class: Relationship between Religion and class is
difficult.…read more


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