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Key words

Birth rate: The number of live births per a 1000 people per year

Death rate: The number of deaths per 1000 people per year

Life expectancy: The average number of years from birth that a person is expected to live

Longevity: The increase in life expectance…

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Optimum population: Theoretical population, which working with all the available resources will
produce the highest standard of living for people of that area.

Population: Geography

The main population indicators and their explanations

Birth rate and death rate are the two main indicators acting as `controllers' over the rest of the…

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-disproportionate amount of females left in country

-Concave profile to the pyramid )(

In a developed country (UK) the population pyramid shows/ has:
-slow population growth

-narrow base due to low birth rates so large number of elderly dependents

-low infant mortality

-longer life expectancy

-convex profile ()

-straighter sides…

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-war, natural disaster etc in rural areas

-hope that migrants can receive support from the state

Age structures
Age structure can be measured by a number of indices:

-the dependency ration:

Dependency ratio: calculated by the population 0-19 plus the population over 60. This is then divided
by the population…

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-Hygiene: Where there is poor hygiene, there is a high death rate as there is an increased likelihood
of catching disease, and countries in which poor hygiene occurs generally cannot afford to treat
diseases. Good hygiene= low death rates as less likelihood of spread of disease.

-Increased use of vaccines:…

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-limited birth control/ family planning

-high infant mortality rate, which encourages birth of more children

-children are seen as future source of income and as a sign of fertility

-some religions encourage large families

Reasons for high DR include:

-high incidence of disease due to underdeveloped and inadequate health facilities…

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Stage 5 (decline) A period in which the death rate slightly exceeds the birth rate, causing population
decline. Found in countries such as: Russia, Germany and Italy. This stage has only been recognised
recently and only in some Western European countries.

Reasons for low BR include:

-rise in individualism, linked…

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-those seeking asylum

-migration between developed countries, particularly because countries within EU where restrictions
have been removed to allow the free movement of labour

-short-term migration as countries increasingly place limits on work permits. Now common for
developed countries (UK and USA) to limit length of work permits, even for…

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-in real terms, cost of transport has declined

-more gangs of traffickers are preying on would-be migrants and offering a passage to a new life.

Example: Jordanian asylum seeker Abu Qataba who lives in the UK. The Jordanian government want
to execute him under grounds of terrorism, however Abu Qataba…

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-much of the money earned, including pension -the `skills gap' that exists in many host countries
payments is sent to country of origin is filled by qualified migrants
-increased number of people add pressure on -cost of retirement are transferred back to
resources such as welfare system source country



Mr A Gibson


A glossary, development indicators, population change and population structures. This a good resource as the information is balanced well. Use this as a basis for your own notes and add to/edit to suit your specification.

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