Revision notes on population excluding case studies

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  • Created on: 01-05-13 20:35
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Key words
Birth rate: The number of live births per a 1000 people per year
Death rate: The number of deaths per 1000 people per year
Life expectancy: The average number of years from birth that a person is expected to live
Longevity: The increase in life expectance over a period of time.
Natural change: Change in size of population caused by the interrelationship of birth rate and death
rate. Where death rate exceeds birth rate, a population will decline and vice versa.
Fertility rate: The number of live births per 1000 women of child bearing age in 1 year. If number is
higher than 2.1, population will replace itself.
Infant mortality rate: The number of deaths of children under the age of 1 expressed per 1000
births a year.
Forced migration: The migrant is forced to move because of circumstances.
International migration: The movement of people across national frontiers for a minimum of a year
Migration: A permanent or semi-permanent change of residence of an individual or a group of
Net migration: Difference between number of immigrants and emigrants in an area. Emigrants
exceeding immigrants in an area causes net migration loss. Immigrants exceeding emigrants in an
area causes net migration gain.
Rural-urban and urban-rural migration: In developing countries, net migration gain in urban areas
at the expense of rural areas causes urbanisation. In developed countries, movements from urban
to rural areas lead to counter-urbanisation.
Voluntary migration: The migrant makes the decision to migrate
Population density: Number of people in an area. Density of population is obtained by dividing the
total population of a country (or region) by the total area of that country (or region)
Population structure: Proportion of males and females in an area, usually in the form of age
Overpopulation: There are too many people in an area relative to the amount of resources and the
level of technology available locally to maintain a high standard of living.
Underpopulation: Too few people in an area to use the resources efficiently for a given level of

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Optimum population: Theoretical population, which working with all the available resources will
produce the highest standard of living for people of that area.
Population: Geography
The main population indicators and their explanations
Birth rate and death rate are the two main indicators acting as `controllers' over the rest of the
population indicators. If the death rate is high, then the fertility rate will be high in order to ensure
that there will be enough children for a source of income to be available.…read more

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Concave profile to the pyramid )(
In a developed country (UK) the population pyramid shows/ has:
-slow population growth
-narrow base due to low birth rates so large number of elderly dependents
-low infant mortality
-longer life expectancy
-convex profile ()
-straighter sides to the pyramid (due to longer life expectancy and better quality of life)
Rural v urban population structure in developing country: effects of
Developing country: rural (Mexico City)
-Increased proportion of young adult age groups (20-34)
-Larger percentage of males than…read more

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Age structures
Age structure can be measured by a number of indices:
-the dependency ration:
Dependency ratio: calculated by the population 0-19 plus the population over 60. This is then divided
by the population 20-59. The higher the dependency ratio, the more the non-economically active
proportion is dependent on the working population
Juvenility index is the population 0-19 divided by the population 20 and over. The higher the
juvenility index, the greater the proportion of younger people in a population.…read more

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Hygiene: Where there is poor hygiene, there is a high death rate as there is an increased likelihood
of catching disease, and countries in which poor hygiene occurs generally cannot afford to treat
diseases. Good hygiene= low death rates as less likelihood of spread of disease.
-Increased use of vaccines: Causes death rates to fall as people are able to be treated from
potentially life threatening illnesses (German measles, Polio etc.…read more

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Reasons for high DR include:
-high incidence of disease due to underdeveloped and inadequate health facilities
-poor nutrition and famine, as well as poor levels of hygiene
Stage 2 (early expanding): A period of high birth rate but falling death rate. Found in countries such
as Afghanistan. Population begins to expand rapidly
Reasons for falling DR include:
-improved public health
-better nutrition
-lower child mortality
-improved medical provision
Stage 3 (late expanding): A period of falling birth rate and continuing fall in death rate.…read more

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Stage 5 (decline) A period in which the death rate slightly exceeds the birth rate, causing population
decline. Found in countries such as: Russia, Germany and Italy. This stage has only been recognised
recently and only in some Western European countries.
Reasons for low BR include:
-rise in individualism, linked to emancipation of women in the labour market
-greater financial independence of women
-concern about the impact of increased population numbers on the resources for future generations
(see Boserup, Malthus, Club of Rome and Simon).…read more

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EU where restrictions
have been removed to allow the free movement of labour
-short-term migration as countries increasingly place limits on work permits. Now common for
developed countries (UK and USA) to limit length of work permits, even for qualified migrants
coming from other developed countries.
-movement of migrants between developing countries, particularly to those where rapid economic
development is taking place: eg countries of Persian Gulf and the Asian economic growth area of
Singapore and Indonesia.…read more

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Example: Jordanian asylum seeker Abu Qataba who lives in the UK. The Jordanian government want
to execute him under grounds of terrorism, however Abu Qataba says that his government gained
the evidence under torture.
Social, economic and political effects of migration.
Issues of economic migration: source country.…read more

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Social costs Social benefits
-dominance of males reinforced, especially in -creation of multi-ethnic society increases
countries where status of women is low eg: understanding of other cultures
Persian Gulf states -influence of new/revitalised providers of local
-aspects of cultural identity are lost- particularly services eg: Turkish baths and local corner shops
among second generation migrants -growth of ethnic retailing and areas associated
-segregated areas of similar ethic groups with ethnic food outlets eg: curry mile in
created, and schools dominated by migrant Rusholme, Manchester
children…read more


Mr A Gibson

A glossary, development indicators, population change and population structures. This a good resource as the information is balanced well. Use this as a basis for your own notes and add to/edit to suit your specification.

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