Revision notes on Bonding

aqa chemistry AS, nit 1, bonding. includes different types of bonding: ionic, covalent, dative covalent/coordinate, metallic; electronegativity and dipoles; shapes of molecules and bond angles; intermolecular forces: van der waals', permanent dipole-dipole attractions, hydrogen bonding; molecular crystals, macromolecular crystals, the structure of ice, states of matter.

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  • Created on: 25-11-12 19:03
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Bonding Notes

Ionic
Between metals and non-metals.
Metal atoms lose electrons forming cations.
Non-metal atoms gain electrons and form anions.
Ions held together by strong electrostatic attraction forces forming a giant 3D lattice.




Structure
3D ionic lattice.
Face centred cubic lattice/ 6:6 lattice (for NaCl).

Physical Properties
High melting point-…

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Covalent
A shared pair of electrons.
Between 2 non-metals.
Both atoms want to gain electrons.



Coordinate/ Dative Covalent
A shared pair of electrons, just like in a covalent bond.
Both electrons originate from 1 atom in the bond.
One atom has a lone pair and acts as an electron pair…

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Intermolecular Forces
Forces between covalent molecules.
Three different types: Van der Waals', Permanent dipole-dipole, Hydrogen bonding from weakest to strongest.

Van der Waals' Forces
The weakest of the intermolecular forces.
Occurs in all species.
Electrons constantly move around inside their shells.
Electron distribution becomes asymmetric due to fluctuating movement of…

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Molecular Crystals
A lattice of covalently bonded molecules held together by intermolecular forces.

Physical Properties
Molecular crystals held together by Van der Waals' forces are readily sublime (e.g. iodine
crystals).
Electrical insulators- no charged particles free to move around the lattice.
Insoluble in water (I, S, P) - neutral molecules…

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Shapes of Molecules
How to determine the shape of a molecule:
Total number of electrons in outer shell of central atom.
Add 1 for each negative charge.
Subtract 1 for each positive charge.
Add 1 for each atom bonded to the central atom.
Divide by 2 to get the total…

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States of Matter
3 different states of matter.

Solids
High degree of order.
Particles vibrate around fixed positions.
When particles are heated they gain more kinetic energy and so vibrate more.
When particles have enough energy to overcome attractive forces the solid melts.
Energy is used in separating the particles…

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