Revision notes for AS Psychology on Memory

Revision notes for AS Psychology on Memory, this is what I am using and really hope to pass these exams.

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Psychology Note Leigh O'Neill
Revision Notes ­ Psychology ­ Memory
3 stages to memory:
- Encoding: Refers to how we get the information into our memory; this could
be by sounds/Visual things.
- Storage: Keeping the information in our memory.
- Recall: Bring all the information back.
Multi store model:
- Made by Atkinson and Shiffin (1968)
- Made up of three components:
Sensory memory ­ Briefest memory store, passes the information to the
STM/LTM for storage. Referred to as the ,,Gatekeeper of the memory.
Short-Term Memory ­ Simplified to STM, Holds information for a brief
period of time, of which has a limited capacity, small numbers at only on
time. Miller (1956) found that the STM can only hold 5-9 pieces of
information (+7/-2). Universal figure.
Long-Term Memory ­ Simplified to LTM. Can hold unlimited amount of
information for a long period of time (Lifetime). The information can be
changed due to experiences.
The model;
Sights, sounds
and other senses
Sensory Memory Attention Short-Term Long-Term
Memory Memory
Forgotten through Forgotten through Forgotten through
Decay/Displacement Decay/Displacement
The memory still works if one part does not work in studies like clive and HM.

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Psychology Note Leigh O'Neill
Some evidence that is against the MSM.
The WMM shows a more complex version of the STM than what is given in the
Research Study:
Jacobs (1887) ­ Capacity of STM; Digit Spam Technique:
Aim: Find out how much the STM can hold.
Procedure: Jacobs read a list mixed with letters and numbers to participants,
Jacobs increased the length of the list until the participant incorrectly recalled
the list. The participants could only manage 50%.…read more

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Psychology Note Leigh O'Neill
After 3, 6,9,12 and 18 seconds they were asked to recall the letters.
This was repeated with different letters.
Findings: 80% of participants were able to recall the three letters correctly after
3 seconds.
Peterson and Peterson found that participants managed to recall the letters
incorrectly with more time for counting.
Only 10% of participant managed to correctly recall the letters after 18 seconds.…read more

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Psychology Note Leigh O'Neill
The participants were told to recall the words as soon as they were called out.
Findings ­ Participants seemed to do worse in List A (Recall of 10%)
Participants did very well in the other lists (60%-80%)
Conclusions: There was Acoustic Confusion in List A, this might be because the
words were visually given to the participants but there was still Acoustic confusion
because the brain tries to make sense of the words.…read more

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Psychology Note Leigh O'Neill
People who left 48 years ago still managed to 80% of the faces but only 70% of
the names.
Free recall was poor.
The recognition task was easier than the free recall test.
We pass the information to the LTM, and we need access to the LTM, "Jogging
People process the VLTM but it does slow down over time.
It is high in ecological validity because it does relate to their past and therefore
real life events.…read more

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Psychology Note Leigh O'Neill
- Repeated and the findings were consistent.
- The study is high in ecological validity, used in everyday life, just like
watching a film and then recalling all of the events that happened.
- It does not encode in just semantic. People remember song lyrics which are
encoded through Acoustic. This can cause difficulty as you cannot process
tastes and smells. LTM encoding must be a large, flexible and a long lasting
system.…read more

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Psychology Note Leigh O'Neill
Working Memory Model:
Made by Baddeley and Hitch:
Both said that the MSM was way too simple than what was given for the STM.
They also believed that the STM was not passive, it just actively manipulates
Too prove this they gave participants two different tasks to do;
- Follow a light and draw at the same time.
- Follow a light and recall digits when asked.…read more

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Psychology Note Leigh O'Neill
Phonological Loop:
Limited capacity
In two different parts;
- Articulatory Control System;
Rehearses information verbally
Capacity based on time
,,The inner voice
- Phonological Store;
Sound based storage
Decays after two seconds
,,The inner ear
Visual-spatial Sketchpad:
Used in planning a spatial task (Getting from one room to another)
Visual/Spatial information is general stored here
Visual (What things look like)
Spatial information (What things look like)
Input from LTM through what you see.…read more

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Psychology Note Leigh O'Neill
Baddeley created an experiment to see how the length of the words affect
correct recall of words. From this experiment Baddeley found that the limiting
factor was the time it takes to say the word rather than length which effects
recall. From this experiment Baddeley concluded that the Articulatory suppression
task fills the phonological loop and stops you from rehearsing the word.…read more

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Psychology Note Leigh O'Neill
Criticism of the case studies:
How do we all know that the participants have trouble with memory before they
had brain damage?
10…read more


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