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Psychology Note Leigh O'Neill

Revision Notes ­ Psychology ­ Memory

3 stages to memory:

- Encoding: Refers to how we get the information into our memory; this could
be by sounds/Visual things.
- Storage: Keeping the information in our memory.
- Recall: Bring all the information back.

Multi store model:…

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Psychology Note Leigh O'Neill


Some evidence that is against the MSM.

The WMM shows a more complex version of the STM than what is given in the

Research Study:

Jacobs (1887) ­ Capacity of STM; Digit Spam Technique:

Aim: Find out how much the STM can hold.


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Psychology Note Leigh O'Neill

After 3, 6,9,12 and 18 seconds they were asked to recall the letters.

This was repeated with different letters.

Findings: 80% of participants were able to recall the three letters correctly after
3 seconds.

Peterson and Peterson found that participants managed to recall the letters

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Psychology Note Leigh O'Neill

The participants were told to recall the words as soon as they were called out.

Findings ­ Participants seemed to do worse in List A (Recall of 10%)

Participants did very well in the other lists (60%-80%)

Conclusions: There was Acoustic Confusion in List A, this…

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Psychology Note Leigh O'Neill

People who left 48 years ago still managed to 80% of the faces but only 70% of
the names.

Free recall was poor.


The recognition task was easier than the free recall test.

We pass the information to the LTM, and we need access to…

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Psychology Note Leigh O'Neill

- Repeated and the findings were consistent.
- The study is high in ecological validity, used in everyday life, just like
watching a film and then recalling all of the events that happened.
- It does not encode in just semantic. People remember song lyrics which…

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Psychology Note Leigh O'Neill

Working Memory Model:

Made by Baddeley and Hitch:

Both said that the MSM was way too simple than what was given for the STM.
They also believed that the STM was not passive, it just actively manipulates

Too prove this they gave participants two different…

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Psychology Note Leigh O'Neill

Phonological Loop:

Limited capacity

In two different parts;

- Articulatory Control System;
Rehearses information verbally
Capacity based on time
,,The inner voice
- Phonological Store;
Sound based storage
Decays after two seconds
,,The inner ear

Visual-spatial Sketchpad:

Used in planning a spatial task (Getting from one…

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Psychology Note Leigh O'Neill

Baddeley created an experiment to see how the length of the words affect
correct recall of words. From this experiment Baddeley found that the limiting
factor was the time it takes to say the word rather than length which effects
recall. From this experiment Baddeley concluded…

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Psychology Note Leigh O'Neill

Criticism of the case studies:

How do we all know that the participants have trouble with memory before they
had brain damage?



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