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Topic 3- Disease
Lifestyle and Disease
Caused by lifestyle factors such as exercise, diet, environment, drinking and smoking.
Different diseases have different risk factors.
Some risk factors are uncontrollable such as genes or age.
Some factors like diet and exercise are controllable.

Disease Risk Factors
Lung cancer Smoking, environmental pollution…

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The toxins are picked up by macrophages causing the macrophages to release proteins that affect the body's temperature
regulating mechanisms.

Exotoxin- proteins that are secreted by bacteria. Each exotoxin has a different effect on the body. These exotoxins are the
cause of many symptoms of bacterial infection.

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Prokaryotic Cells
Don't have a nucleus; instead they have a nucleoid- the region of the cytoplasm containing DNA.
Don't have any membrane bound organelles; instead all metabolic reactions are carried out in areas of the cytoplasm.
Have loop DNA loose in the cytoplasm.
Have plasmids- rings of DNA that are…

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The water potential in the lumen of the small intestine
becomes very negative so water in the cells diffuses out
by osmosis.
The cells lose water into the lumen causing dehydration.
High water content in the lumen causes diarrhoea.

Oral rehydration therapy using oral rehydration
Rehydration solutions contain…


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