Restless Earth Revision Notes

A summary of the restless earth topic for the exam tomorrow :)

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Rebecca
  • Created on: 12-06-11 15:53
Preview of Restless Earth Revision Notes

First 237 words of the document:

Restless Earth
Term Definition
Atmosphere The gases that make up the air around us.
Causes weather, climate and the greenhouse effect, which keeps the planet warm.
Oxygen for respiration and CO2 for plant growth.
Hydrosphere Includes all water and ice and is found on the earth's crust.
Water moves around earth in the water cycle.
Needed for plant and animal life.
Biosphere Thin layer of living things on the crust.
Plants and animals can provide food and medicines for humans
Geosphere Rocks on the Earth's crust and deeper into the core.
Core provides magnetic field protecting Earth from space radiation.
Includes: rocks (for building), fossil fuels and minerals (many uses).
Lithosphere Upper layer of the Earth which is very cool and brittle
Includes the crust and the very top of the mantle.
Asthenospher Second layer of Earth including semi-molten rock found further into the mantle.
Mesosphere Third layer of Earth including semi-molten rock found further into the mantle.
Part Main State Density Temp. Distance Thick
Substances ºC (km) (km)
Oceanic Basalt (igneous Solid 2.7-3 200-4 0-8 6-8
Crust rock) 00
Continental Granite Solid 3-3.3 200-4 0-50 30-50
Crust (igneous rock) 00
Mantle Sulphides & Semi-m 3.3-5.7 3000 100-290 2800
oxides of silicon olten 0
& magnesium.

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Outer Core Iron, nickel and Liquid 9.9-12. 4000- 2900-51 2200
~ 10% sulphur 2 5000 00
and oxygen
Inner Core Iron, nickel and Solid 12.6-13 5000- 5100-63 1278
some lighter 6000 78
Average Density: 5.5 g/cm3
Radioactive decay of unstable elements (uranium & thorium) in the core & mantle cause geothermal
heat which causes convection currents in the mantle & outer core. These make the tectonic plates
move. This radioactive decay also generates the Earth's magnetic field.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Oceanic crust (higher density) Nazca & S. Volcano
collides with continental crust, American Earth-qua
is forced down (subduction ke
zone) & melts - friction & heat Fold
from mantle, forming magma.
Trench is created. Continental
crust is squashed & forced
upwards = fold mountains. Trench
As 2 continental plates move Indian & Earth-qua
together & both resist Eurasian kes
subduction, buckle & fold, (formed Fold
being forced upwards to Himalayas) Mountain
create fold mountains.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Plates do not move smoothly so when a plate gets stuck, pressure builds up. When the pressure is
released an earthquake can take place. The point where
the pressure is released is known as the focus and the
point directly above it on the surface of the earth is called
the epicentre.
Seismic Waves are the shock waves created by the
earthquake and they lose energy the further they travel
from the focus and epicentre.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Third biggest earthquake in the region
Richter Scale: 6.3
Death toll: 300
15,000 buildings off limits
On Eurasian and African tectonic plate boundaries
Destructive plate boundary
50,000 homeless
26 council districts hit - in 35km radius
150 killed
Management Strategies
Type Kashmir L'Aquila
Prevention There's no way to
predict earth quakes
but a seismometer
(monitors tremors in the
Earth) can be used to
identify potential earth
quakes. It's more
worthwhile to invest in
the preparation for an
earth-quake.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Why do effects of Earthquakes vary?
Magnitude: Kashmir's Earthquake was over 10 times stronger
Population Density: L'Aquila = 59/km2 Kashmir = 200/km2
Rock/Soil type
Wealth: Kashmir is in an LEDC (Pakistan) but L'Aquila is in an MEDC (Italy)
Case Study: Montserrat Volcano
Evacuation to a safe zone
Evacuation to Antigua, USA and UK
Mapping pyroclastic flows as warning
Aid from UK and USA
Why hasn't it recovered?
Lack of money to rebuild and clean
Volcano continues to erupt
Less people to help rebuild
Lack…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Social Economic Environmental
Population Building destroyed Vegetation destroyed
Decreased 11,000 -> 3,500 Decrease in tourism on the south side of the
1999 it rose to 4,500 Animals killed which island
Under 30: 52% (90/91) 34% impacted farming Ash contains nutrients
(97) Crops destroyed: less to which fertilise the soil
Ave. age: 28.9 (90/91) 40.…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

Emergency services and medicine from
within the country…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all resources »