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Restless Earth
Term Definition
Atmosphere The gases that make up the air around us.
Causes weather, climate and the greenhouse effect, which keeps the planet warm.
Oxygen for respiration and CO2 for plant growth.

Hydrosphere Includes all water and ice and is found on the earth's crust.

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Outer Core Iron, nickel and Liquid 9.9-12. 4000- 2900-51 2200
~ 10% sulphur 2 5000 00
and oxygen
Inner Core Iron, nickel and Solid 12.6-13 5000- 5100-63 1278
some lighter 6000 78
Average Density: 5.5 g/cm3
Radioactive decay of unstable elements (uranium & thorium) in the core & mantle…

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Oceanic crust (higher density) Nazca & S. Volcano
collides with continental crust, American Earth-qua
is forced down (subduction ke
zone) & melts - friction & heat Fold
from mantle, forming magma.
Trench is created. Continental
crust is squashed & forced
upwards = fold mountains. Trench

As 2 continental…

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Plates do not move smoothly so when a plate gets stuck, pressure builds up. When the pressure is
released an earthquake can take place. The point where
the pressure is released is known as the focus and the
point directly above it on the surface of the earth is called…

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Third biggest earthquake in the region
Richter Scale: 6.3
Death toll: 300
15,000 buildings off limits
On Eurasian and African tectonic plate boundaries
Destructive plate boundary
50,000 homeless
26 council districts hit - in 35km radius
150 killed

Management Strategies
Type Kashmir L'Aquila
Prevention There's no way to…

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Why do effects of Earthquakes vary?
Magnitude: Kashmir's Earthquake was over 10 times stronger
Population Density: L'Aquila = 59/km2 Kashmir = 200/km2
Rock/Soil type
Wealth: Kashmir is in an LEDC (Pakistan) but L'Aquila is in an MEDC (Italy)

Case Study: Montserrat Volcano
Evacuation to a safe zone
Evacuation to…

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Social Economic Environmental
Population Building destroyed Vegetation destroyed
Decreased 11,000 -> 3,500 Decrease in tourism on the south side of the
1999 it rose to 4,500 Animals killed which island
Under 30: 52% (90/91) 34% impacted farming Ash contains nutrients
(97) Crops destroyed: less to which fertilise the soil

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Emergency services and medicine from
within the country


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