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Central zone
Concentration of iron and nickel


Semi molten magma
Convection currents determine direction of plate movement

The Crust

Thin outer layer
Split into plates

Continental Crust

Older most over 1500mill years old
Less dense
Cannot sink
Cannot be renewed or destroyed

Oceanic crust

Newer most less…

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Conservative plate margins

Best example at San Andreas Fault, California

North American Plate and Pacific Plate both move in same direction, but at different speeds.

Friction prevents easy movement, stress and strain build up and pressure is released with a sudden jerk,
causing an earthquake

Ocean trenches

Deepest part of…

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Farming Subsistence farming. Steep slopes are terraced to create areas of flat land these also prevent
soil erosion and retain rain water. Some cash crops, e.g. rice and cotton. Llamas are used for meat, milk,
transport and wool.

Mining Many minerals minded e.g. tin silver gold. 50% of Peru's exports…

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4) Forests flattened.

Secondary effects:

1) Floods because ash blocked rivers
2) Air space closed
3) Bridges and roads damaged.

Immediate responses:

1) Search and rescue mission by helicopters
2) Emergency medical treatment in nearby towns
3) Shelter found for those who were stranded
4) Masks provided to filter dust…

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Longitudinal waves cause up and down movement.

Transverse waves cause side to side movement more damage

Primary waves these travel fastest and cause back and forth movement

Secondary waves slower and cause side to side movement


Richter scale:

Measures movement of the ground. A logarithmic scale (3 is 10…

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Sichuan, China, 2008

Primary effects:

1) 69,000 died
2) 400,000 injured
3) 5 mill buildings collapsed

Secondary effects:

1) Landslides
2) Floods
3) Lots made homeless
4) Telephones didn't work

Immediate Responses:

1) Troops came in by helicopter
2) International aid from Russia and Japan

Long term responses:

1) Debts…

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7) Streets littered with bodies
8) Disease spread
9) Farmland and crops destroyed

Short term response:

1) Hundreds of millions of pounds pledged by foreigners
2) Soldiers, nurses, etc sent to help.

Long term response:

1) Billions pledged to rebuild infrastructure
2) Programmes set up to rebuild
3) Warning system…


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