Respiration Revision Notes

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  • Created by: Ellen
  • Created on: 26-09-12 14:04
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Why do we need to Respire?
Energy: the ability to do work
ATP: a phosphorylated nucleotide and is the universal energy currency
Anabolic Reactions: biochemical reactions where large molecules are synthesised from smaller ones
Catabolic Reactions: reactions where larger molecules are hydrolysed to produce smaller molecules
Metabolic processes that require energy:
Active Transport
Secretion
Endocytosis
Anabolic reactions
Replication of DNA
The energy comes from Photoautotrophs use sunlight energy in photosynthesis to make large organic molecules that contain chemical
potential energy.
ATP + H²O ADP+ H²O AMP + H²O Adenosine

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ATP is a phosphorylated nucleotide. It is a high energy intermediate compound. Each molecule consists of adenosine plus three phosphate
groups.
Coenzymes
During glycolysis, Krebs and link reaction hydrogen atoms are removed from substrate molecules in Oxidation reactions. These reactions are
catalysed by dehydrogenase enzymes however coenzymes are needed to help them carry out the oxidation reactions of respiration.…read more

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Stage 1 Phosphorylation
One ATP is hydrolysed and the phosphate group released is attached to glucose at carbon 6
Another ATP is hydrolysed and the phosphate group released is attached to fructose6p at carbon 1 (now called Fructose 1,6
bisphosphate
The energy from the hydrolysed ATP activates the hexose sugar and prevents it being transported out of the cell this activated,
phosphorylated sugar is now called Hexose 1,6 bisphosphate
This stage has used two molecules of ATP for each molecule of glucose
Stage 2 Splitting…read more

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Convert each triose phosphate molecule to a molecule of pyruvate
In the process, another 2 molecules of ADP are phosphorylated to 2 molecules of ATP (by substratelevel phosphorylation)
Products of Glycolysis
The Link Reaction
This reaction converts pyruvate to acetate. NAD is reduced.…read more

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The second 4C compound is changed into another 4C compound. A pair of hydrogen atoms are removed and accepted by
Coenzyme FAD, which becomes reduced
6 The third 4C compound is further dehydrogenated and regenerates Oxaloacetate. Another molecule of NAD is reduced.…read more

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The first electron carrier to accept electrons from reduced NAD is a protein complex, complex 1, called NADH (coenzyme Q
reductase
The protons go into solution in the matrix
The electron transport chain
The electrons are passed along a chain of electron carriers and then donated to molecular oxygen, the final electron acceptor.…read more

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The 10 molecules of reduced NAD can produced theoretically 26 molecules of ATP (Oxidative Phosphorylation)
Therefore for each molecule of reduced NAD that is reoxidised, up to 2.…read more

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Structure and function of Mitochondria
Most are between 0.5m1.0m in diameter and 25m long.
Metabolically active cells (more demand for ATP) have more mitochondria.…read more

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Protons flow down a concentration gradient, through the ATP synthase enzymes, from the intermembrane space, into the matrix. This is
called Chemiosmosis
Coenzyme FAD is tightly bound to a dehydrogenase enzyme, embedded in the inner membrane. The protons accepted by the FAD do not
get pumped into the intermembrane space instead they pass back into the mitochondrial matrix.
Anaerobic Respiration in Mammals and Yeast
Oxygen acts as the final acceptor in oxidative phosphorylation.…read more

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Yeast is a facultative anaerobe it can live without oxygen.…read more

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