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Respiration ­
OCR A2 Biology…read more

Slide 2

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What is Respiration?
· The process whereby energy in
complex organic molecules is
used to make ATP in living cells…read more

Slide 3

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Why do we need Energy?
· Active Transport ­ moving ions and molecules
against a concentration gradient.
· Secretion ­ moving large molecules out of cells
by exocytosis.
· Endocytosis ­ bulk movement of large molecules
into cells
· Synthesis of large molecules from smaller ones
· Replication of DNA and cell organelles
· Movement ­ of cilia, flagella and muscle
contractions.…read more

Slide 4

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The Role of ATP
· It consists of adenine, ribose sugar and 3
phosphate groups.
· It can be hydrolysed to ADP and P, which
releases 36Kj/mole.
· The energy is therefore available in small,
manageable packets.
· ATP is known as the universal energy
currency.…read more

Slide 5

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·Organic, non protein.
·It is made up nicotinamide, 2 ribose sugars,
adenine, and two phosphate groups.
·It can accept 2 hydrogen atoms.
Coenzyme A:
·Made up of Pantothenic acid, adenosine, 3
phosphate groups and cysteine.
·It carries acetate from the link reaction to the Krebs
cycle.…read more

Slide 6

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Glycolysis ­ Part 1
Glucose (6C) · Glycolysis takes place in the
cytoplasm of all living cells.
· An ATP is hydrolysed and the
P phosphate group released is attached
Glucose-6-Phosphate on to the glucose molecule at carbon
· Glucose-6-phosphate changes to
· Another ATP molecule is hydrolysed
Fructose-6-Phosphate and Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate is
AT formed.
P · The energy released from the ATP
activates the hexose sugar and
Hexose-1,6- prevents it being transported out the
Bisphosphate cell.
· It is referred to as Hexose-1,6-
Bisphosphate.…read more

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