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During respiration and exercise, the rate of breathing and the heart rate increases as
the muscles in the body requires more oxygen and glucose to make the energy needed
in the mitochondria. A fit person's heart rate will return to normal far quicker after
exercise than an unfit person.
There are two types of respiration called aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration.
Anaerobic respiration in humans is less efficient than aerobic respiration at releasing
energy, but releases energy faster.
Aerobic respiration provides energy for the body to do work. Aerobic means with air
so in terms, means that there is sufficient oxygen being used to create the energy.
Most of the released energy is used to drive various processes in the cell, such as
growth or movement.
Anaerobic respiration however means that there is not enough oxygen to create the
energy needed. For example, during a sprint, human muscles can respire by producing
energy by anaerobic respiration. Unfortunately, lactic acid is produced and
accumulates until the muscles cannot continue working. Hence, after a sprint, the
performer breathes heavily to supply the body with enough oxygen to break down
this lactic acid and to pay back the oxygen debt built up during the sprint.
Energy produced during aerobic respiration is used for:-
Making your muscles work
Absorbing molecules against concentration gradients active transport
Growth and repair of cells
Making up larger molecules from smaller ones