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Research methods- revision notes
Qualitative data- non numerical data

Thoughts and feelings
Real life context
Rich/ detailed data, meaningful, high validity
Low reliability, difficult to analyse
Quantitative- facts and figures
Numerical data
Specific behaviour
Involves measurements
Easy to analyse, objective, reliable
Less meaningful, less ecological validity
Pilot study- a…

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Measures of dispersion, Range ­ indicates the difference between the highest and lowest score. The
bigger the range, the more spread out the scores.
Standard deviation- on average, how far each score differs from the mean. Large SD indicates each
score is from the mean, small SD indicates score is…

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Methods of self-report
Questionnaires- a list of pre-set questions to which participants respond. Allow a subjective analysis.
Face to face, en masse, post, internet, phone.
Cost effective, less time consuming, easy to reach a wide range of people.
Relies on respondents returning them, difficult to generalise, response bias, people don't…

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Time consuming

Systematic sampling- The nth member of the population is chosen.
Avoids researcher bias
Not representative
Observational studies

Laboratory observation- like a lab experiment. Controlled environment.
Offer high levels of control, cause and effect
Lack ecological validity
Naturalistic observation- observing people in their natural environment. Unconstrained behaviour.

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Zero correlation- no clear relationship between the two variables. Co-efficient of 0.

Can establish the strength and direction of the relationship between variables.
Statically analyse naturally occurring phenomenon.
Cannot reliably establish a cause and effect.
Lack construct validity.

Case studies

An in-depth investigation of one person of group or organisation.…

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Respect- value the dignity and worth of all individuals
Avoid prejudice
Audio, video, recording- consent
Informed consent
Under 16- parental consent
Not pressurised
Avoid deception
Right to withdraw

Competence- psychologists should work within the limits of their knowledge, skill, training, education
and experience.

Responsibility ­ protection of…

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Presenting data

Bar graphs- when data is divided into categories/ discrete data.

Line graphs- data must be numerical. Continuous data. Can be used to make estimates.

Histograms- represents continuous data. Bars represent each score- drawn touching to show the data is
continuous. Useful when there is a large scale of…


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