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Psychology
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Psychology
Demand Characteristics are whenever participants in an experiment change their behaviour
purposely, and don't act themselves.
There are 2 main types of Demand Characteristics:
Screw You Effect
And
Please You Effect
Screw You Effect
The Screw You Effect is whenever you know what is happening in the experiment and purposely
refrain from showing any signs of participating in the experiment.
E.g. a researcher wants to find out, how many times pupils raise their hands in class.…read more

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Psychology
A blind or blinded experiment is a scientific experiment where some of the persons involved are
prevented from knowing certain information that might lead to conscious or unconscious bias on their
part, invalidating the results
Single Blind Procedure
This is when the researcher has information that can alter or change the results but the researcher
themselves are aware of what is happening.…read more

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Psychology
Correlations are not a true research method and are often used to find if a relationship exists which
then can be investigated further using other research methods.
The Difference between a correlation and an experiment
An Experiment looks for a cause and effect relationship between two variables the IV and the DV.
This can be done due to the control over extraneous variables. However a correlation does not do
this. It just aims to measure the strength of a relationship between two variables.…read more

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Psychology
Formal Interviews
A Structured interview (formal) is when a questionnaire is read to participants and the interviewer
writes down their response. These interviews are identical for all participants and tend to involve
simpler, quantitative answers. Interviewers don't need a lot of training, since they are fairly easy to
conduct.
Informal Interviews
Unstructured interviews (informal) are less controlled and involve an informal discussion on a
particular topic. However while the topic is predetermined, the direction of the interview isn't.…read more

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Psychology
Closed Questions
The responses are fixed to a short simple answer usually involving Yes/No or Tick Boxes
Open Questions
These allow participants to answer in their own words. They are more difficult to analyse but allow
greater freedom of expression and obtain greater depth.…read more

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Psychology
A smaller version of a larger study that is conducted to prepare for that study. A pilot study can
involve pre-testing a research tool, like a new data collection method. It can also be used to test an
idea or hypothesis. Pilot studies can also be used in clinical trials, in order to test different doses,
routes of administration, dosing schedules and possible barriers to adherence before a large-scale
multicenter drug study is launched.…read more

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Psychology
Ethical Guidelines
Set out by the British Psychological society (BPS) with the aim to protect the participants both
psychologically and physically. If a psychologist doesn't follow these they could possibly lose their
license to practice.
Key Ethical Guidelines
Informed Consent
Wherever possible the psychologist should inform the participants about the research they
are undertaking and what will happen to them in the study. If the person is under 16, then
parental consent should be gained.…read more

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