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Demand Characteristics are whenever participants in an experiment change their behaviour
purposely, and don't act themselves.

There are 2 main types of Demand Characteristics:

Screw You Effect
Please You Effect

Screw You Effect

The Screw You Effect is whenever you know what is happening in the experiment and…

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A blind or blinded experiment is a scientific experiment where some of the persons involved are
prevented from knowing certain information that might lead to conscious or unconscious bias on their
part, invalidating the results

Single Blind Procedure

This is when the researcher has information that can alter or…

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Correlations are not a true research method and are often used to find if a relationship exists which
then can be investigated further using other research methods.

The Difference between a correlation and an experiment
An Experiment looks for a cause and effect relationship between two variables the IV…

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Formal Interviews
A Structured interview (formal) is when a questionnaire is read to participants and the interviewer
writes down their response. These interviews are identical for all participants and tend to involve
simpler, quantitative answers. Interviewers don't need a lot of training, since they are fairly easy to

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Closed Questions
The responses are fixed to a short simple answer usually involving Yes/No or Tick Boxes

Open Questions
These allow participants to answer in their own words. They are more difficult to analyse but allow
greater freedom of expression and obtain greater depth.

Examples of Closed Questions


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A smaller version of a larger study that is conducted to prepare for that study. A pilot study can
involve pre-testing a research tool, like a new data collection method. It can also be used to test an
idea or hypothesis. Pilot studies can also be used in clinical…

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Ethical Guidelines
Set out by the British Psychological society (BPS) with the aim to protect the participants both
psychologically and physically. If a psychologist doesn't follow these they could possibly lose their
license to practice.

Key Ethical Guidelines

Informed Consent
Wherever possible the psychologist should inform the participants about…


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