Research Methods: Issues and Debates

o     Describe and evaluate (and describe and evaluate a study to support the research method) lab, field, natural experiments, observations, questionnaires, interviews, content analysis, correlations, case studies. 

o     Plan a study of their own when given a context, giving aim, hypotheses, design, procedure, ethical considerations, and how results would be analysed (including choice of statistical test as appropriate), and be able to evaluate the study.

o     Evaluate psychological studies with reference to the research methods used, including making suggestions for improvements (eg improving controls, changing the chosen method, improving reliability or validity). Note: a study may be given as stimulus material for evaluation.

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Research Methods
Unit 4: Issues and Debates…read more

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Lab Experiment
· Involve an artificial environment, using
careful controls.
· Researcher manipulates IV to see effect
on the DV.…read more

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Strengths Weaknesses
· Reliable- replicable. · Lack validity as tasks are un natural,
·Control over extraneous variables. and don't reflect real human
·Objective measures due to behaviour.
quantitative data. ·Lack ecological validity due to
artificial envrionment.…read more

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· Aim: to see if Germans were different. How far would
someone obey an authority figure (administer shocks) despite
it going against their moral code (agentic state)
· Procedure: 40 male participants, willing to take part. Took
place at Yale university. Room with a generator with levels
and levers. Voltage was labelled as dangerous levels. In
another room was a chair which was wired up. The implication
was that shocks were given, and the chair
recipient received the shocks. The stooge always got wired up
to the chair. Whilst shocks were administered (to
an individual who wasn't wired up at all) false screams of pain
were given out. There was a point where the man went silent.
The participants gave shocks every time the individual got an
answer of a memory test incorrect. The Shock increased 15
volts at a time. When the participants wanted to give up, they
were given verbal prods to continue. After the fourth prod, the
experiment stopped.
· Findings: All participants went up to 300volts. 65% went all
the way to 450volts. Many participants during the procedure…read more

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Strengths Weaknesses
· - The study was a lab experiment, ·- Participants were seriously
so was tightly controlled. deceived, many were caused a great
·- The study acts as a warning about deal of stress- the ethical issues were
society about its potential to be evil, so too great.
it is useful. ·- Sample wasn't representative
·- Milgram theories release people (volunteer)
from responsibility for their actions. ·- The study has ethnocentric and
·- Milgram's study challenges the andocentric biases as the participants
existing view of human nature, and it were American and male.
has high political impact. ·- The study lacks ecological validity
·- Easy to replicate and get same as it was carried out in a lab, and
results, has reliability. wasn't a normal situation for the
participants.…read more

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Field Experiment
· Involves the use of careful controls.
· Occurs in a natural environment or setting.
· Manipulation of the IV and DV.…read more

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