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Lab Well-controlled extraneous variables are Artificial contrived situation where participants
Experimen minimized. Thus causing higher internal validity may not behave as they do in everyday life.
t Can easily be replicated to check if the same Lacks mundane realism and participant and
results occur which supports the external validity investigator effect may occur.
of the results. Reduces internal validity
Field Less artificial, usually higher mundane realism Extraneous variables less easy to control
Experimen and thus higher internal validity. because the experiment is taking place in the
t Avoids participant effects, which may increase real world.
internal validity. May still be demand characteristics, for example
the way the IV gets operationalized may result
in participants finding the aim.
Natural Allows research where IV can't be manipulated Cannot demonstrate casual relationships
Experimen for ethical or practical reasons such as studies of because IV is not directly manipulated.
t privation. Many extraneous variables; lack of random
Enables psychologists to study `real' problems allocation of participants, which is a threat to
such as the effects of disaster on health validity.
(increased mundane realism and validity). Participants may be aware they are being