# Research methods A2 Psychology

- Created by: n
- Created on: 14-01-13 19:52

First 301 words of the document:

Aim: General purpose of an investigation. Often includes previous research

(theories/studies) and explaining why the researcher intends to conduct the study.

Hypothesis: A precise, testable statement or prediction about the expected

outcome.

Experimental hypothesis: When the IV is manipulated, there will be a change

in the DV

Null hypothesis: When the IV is manipulated, there will be no change in the DV

and any change will be due to chance

Directional/one-tailed: States the direction of the predicted difference

Non-directional/two-tailed: Predicts a difference but not the direction

Hypothesis must be operationalised a set of behaviours that can be

measured or manipulated

Variables:

Independent variable: The variable that changes or varies

Dependent variable: The variable that changes because of the DV

Other variables much be controlled to be confident that the IV caused the DV

Extraneous variable: An unwanted variable that the researcher may be

unaware of, such as participant variables, situational variables and

experimenter variables

Confounding variables: An extraneous variable which affects the DV

Quantitative/Qualitative

Quantitative data: In numerical form. Involves experiments, content analysis,

closed questions and structured observations.

Qualitative data: In non-numerical form. Involves case studies, unstructured

interviews and open questions. Focus on subjective views and recording

thoughts and feelings

Sampling

Population: The total collection of people from which a sample is taken

Sample: A selection of participants taken from the population so the

researcher can make generalisations about the population as a whole

Representative sample: As similar as possible to the target population

Sampling bias: Contains an over-representation of a selection of the target

population and does not correctly represent the population

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