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Refers to the extent to which any variable is held constant
Independent variable ­ the thing that you change
Dependent variable ­ the thing that you measure
Extraneous variable ­ anything that may affect the independent variable
The experimenter seeks to control all possible extraneous variables

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Ethical Issues
Informed Consent Participants have the right to be given information
concerning the nature and purpose of the research and their role in it, in order
that they can make an informed decision on whether they would like to
participate in the study or not.
Deception When a participant…

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Experiments and Hypothesis
Directional ­ states the direction of the predicted difference between two
Nondirectional ­ predicts only that there will be a difference between two
condition, doesn't state the direction
Hypotheses must be operationalised ­ specify a set of behaviours that
can be measured or manipulated
Pilot study…


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