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Ann Zaheer Research Methods

Research Methods

o Researcher observes a situation and records what happens without
manipulating any variables
o Non participant ­ researcher does not join in
o Participant ­ researcher joins in activity studied
o Undisclosed ­ Participants not fully aware
o Structured ­ researchers…

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Ann Zaheer Research Methods


o Any method which involves asking a participant about their feelings,
attitudes, beliefs etc.
o Questionnaires ­ consist of set of questions in a highly structured form
o Interviews ­ spoken questionnaire interviewer records answers

o Open and closed questions
Closed questions…

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Ann Zaheer Research Methods

o Snowball sampling ­ if participants are hard to get hold of ask a participant
who fits your target population to tell their friends about the study and ask
them to get in touch with the researcher and so on


o Involves the manipulation…

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Ann Zaheer Research Methods

Laboratory experiments
o Experiment conducted under highly controlled conditions
o Independent variable ­ manipulated variable
o Dependant variable ­ change in behaviour measured by the researcher
Field Experiments
o An experiments that is conducted in the field i.e. a real world situation
o Participants are not…

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Ann Zaheer Research Methods

o The variables increase together.

o As one variable increases the other decreases

o No correlation between variables

o Researchers may use correlational analysis as a starting point in their
research and if a relationship between variables is found they can then


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