Research Methods

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  • Created on: 07-04-15 22:18
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Ann Zaheer Research Methods
Research Methods
Observations:
Definition
o Researcher observes a situation and records what happens without
manipulating any variables
Types
o Non participant ­ researcher does not join in
o Participant ­ researcher joins in activity studied
o Undisclosed ­ Participants not fully aware
o Structured ­ researchers devise a type of coding scheme to record (provides
quantitative data)
o Unstructured ­ researchers record behaviour they can see ( provides
qualitative data)
o Controlled ­ researchers control some variables
Sampling
o Event sampling ­ researcher records an event every time it happens
o Time sampling ­ researcher records event at particular time intervals
Reliability
o Method ­ inter-rater reliability id used wherein the ratings of two or more
researchers are compared and checked for agreement in their markings
o Improvement ­ one can ensure that categories are clearer or observer are
well trained in the use of checklists
Validity
o Method ­ whether a study measures or examine what it claims to measure
and examine
o Improvement ­ observers could be kept unaware of aims of observation;
more observers could also be employed

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Ann Zaheer Research Methods
Self-Report:
Definition
o Any method which involves asking a participant about their feelings,
attitudes, beliefs etc.…read more

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Ann Zaheer Research Methods
o Snowball sampling ­ if participants are hard to get hold of ask a participant
who fits your target population to tell their friends about the study and ask
them to get in touch with the researcher and so on
Experiments:
Definition
o Involves the manipulation of variables in order to discover cause and effect…read more

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Ann Zaheer Research Methods
Laboratory experiments
o Experiment conducted under highly controlled conditions
o Independent variable ­ manipulated variable
o Dependant variable ­ change in behaviour measured by the researcher
Field Experiments
o An experiments that is conducted in the field i.e. a real world situation
o Participants are not usually aware that they are participants
o Independent variable is still manipulated
Natural Experiments
o The independent variable is not manipulated by the researcher but occurs
naturally.…read more

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Ann Zaheer Research Methods
o The variables increase together.…read more

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