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Questionnaires
: definitions
· Open questions: questions which allow the respondent
to answer in their own words. However, might be
ignored because they take too long to answer.
· Closed questions: questions which have a range of
responses that are fixed by the researcher.
Respondents have quick and easy choices to make
between alternatives.
· Pilot study: a preliminary study designed to identify
any problems with the main study. Stops inadequate
questions.…read more

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Problems to avoid:
Questionnaires can be hard to create and there are
many problems that you must avoid when
creating them:
· Ambiguity (questions having double meanings)
· Vagueness (hard to analyse questions that have
too many answers
· Double-barrelled questions (puts respondents off
and makes them harder to understand)
· Leading questions
· Loaded words (negative or positive words)…read more

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ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
· Quantitative data · Low response rate
created that is easy to · Validity of the
analyse and put into questionnaire depends
graphs etc. on how the questions are
· Large samples can be worded
used as easy to send · Respondents may not
questionnaires out be honest
through the post or email, · Respondents may not
therefore more understand the questions
representative · Social desirability
· Can collect factual
information
· Cheaper than other
methods.…read more

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Improving response rates:
· On spot completion ­ (i.e. With
people on the street, can also help
explain question to them)
· Polite and encouraging words
· Emphasise the importance of the
questionnaire
· Clear questions and instructions
· Short questionnaire…read more

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Interviews:
· Structured: these make use of questionnaires
definitions
but the interviewer can read the questions to
the respondent. These are used in large scale
surveys.
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
· Easy to compare · Questions are inflexible
respondents answers · Tape recorder has to be
· Simple to record with tick transcribed ­ time consuming
boxes · Bias answers written up
· Piloted so they aren't from the interviewer
problematic perspective
· Easy to conduct on streets · Respondents cant be asked
· Interviewers need the personal questions as little
briefest of training relationship is established.…read more

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