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Research Methods
Definitions
Internal validity: Whether the study has tested what it set out to test, i.e. the degree to
which the observed effect was due to the experimental manipulation or other extraneous
factors.

External validity: The degree to which findings can be generalised. To other settings
(ecological validity), to…

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Controlled The PP is observed by Can control some Observer's expectations
Observation the researcher, extraneous may affect the results
usually in a lab setting variables and record
where some of the
variables are
controlled
Naturalistic Takes place in the PP's High ecological No control over
Observation own environment and validity…

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Quantitative data: data measures in numerical values representing how much/how
long/how many ect.

Qualitative data: data that expresses the `quality of things', include descriptions, words,
meanings, pictures ect. Cannot be counted but can be turned into quantitative by creating
categories.

Quantitative data analysis: Any means of representing trends from numerical…

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matched on important Controls/reduc Time-consuming to
variables (age, sex, es individual find PP's who match
personality) differences


Sampling
Random sample: A sample of PP's produced by using a random technique such that ever
member of the target population being tested has an equal chance of behind selected

Volunteer Sample: Sample…

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individual difference
taken into account
Low demand
characteristics
Self-report Technique: a non-experiment method which involves asking people questions
about their experiences/beliefs.

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