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Research Methods
Internal validity: Whether the study has tested what it set out to test, i.e. the degree to
which the observed effect was due to the experimental manipulation or other extraneous

External validity: The degree to which findings can be generalised. To other settings
(ecological validity), to…

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Controlled The PP is observed by Can control some Observer's expectations
Observation the researcher, extraneous may affect the results
usually in a lab setting variables and record
where some of the
variables are
Naturalistic Takes place in the PP's High ecological No control over
Observation own environment and validity…

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Quantitative data: data measures in numerical values representing how much/how
long/how many ect.

Qualitative data: data that expresses the `quality of things', include descriptions, words,
meanings, pictures ect. Cannot be counted but can be turned into quantitative by creating

Quantitative data analysis: Any means of representing trends from numerical…

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matched on important Controls/reduc Time-consuming to
variables (age, sex, es individual find PP's who match
personality) differences

Random sample: A sample of PP's produced by using a random technique such that ever
member of the target population being tested has an equal chance of behind selected

Volunteer Sample: Sample…

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individual difference
taken into account
Low demand
Self-report Technique: a non-experiment method which involves asking people questions
about their experiences/beliefs.


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