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Research methods.
Quantitative data: information collected in a course of a
research study that is in a quantified /numerical form.
Qualitative data: information collected in the course of
research study that is non-numerical, someone's opinion.

Experimental methods.
In order to find cause-and-effect relationships we must use
experimental methods.
Experiment research…

Page 2

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High levels of control make it less like a real-life
Demand characteristics ­ the Ps seek cues from
environment about how to behave.
Consent ­ once in a lab setting it might become
difficult to withdraw from the procedure.
2. Field experiments ­ carried out in the real-world

Page 3

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e.g. 2 schools using different methods to teach
reading. Researcher exploits naturally occurring
Reduction of demand characteristics as P is
unaware that they are taking part in an
The experimenter doesn't intervene directly in
the research situation.
Loss of control as IV is not directly controlled by

Page 4

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This allows for the measurement of many variables
(environmental factors)and the relationships between
Not a proper research method ­ who's to say it is
correct or that variables are connected in some way??
It is impossible to establish cause and effect by using
this correlational analysis; it can only…

Page 5

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Non-participant observation = observer remains
external form those being observed.
Prevents time form being wasted by conducting
unrealistic experiments.
Has high levels of ecological validity and realism as long
as observer remains undetected.
Demand characteristics reduced.
Level of control over EV is poor.
Presence of an observer may change P…

Page 6

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are hard to analyse because of the wide range of
possible answers.
Closed Qs = are those where the researcher
determines the answer by; ticking boxes, circling
It is simple and easy to analyse the quantitative data
gained from closed Qs.
V quick and large amounts of info can…

Page 7

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Only a certain type of person replies, pensioners who
have spare time.
If in a newspaper then only certain types of people are
prone to buy such a newspaper so not representational.
Respondent could lie.

Interviews ­ common way of carrying out research.
The different types of interview.
(1) Non…

Page 8

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Interviews can identify aspects of behaviour that is
Face to face.
Demand characteristic may occur.
Interviewees response is limited as they are unable to
articulate thoughts clearly.
Interviewer bias.
Some might lie.
Aim = intended purpose of an investigation.
Hypothesis = a specific statement of what the psychologist

Page 9

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1. Independent design: involves using different Ps in each
condition of the experiment. Ps are chosen randomly
e.g. 1 grp drink alcohol and then are put in room to talk
about a controversial debate, other grp are put in same
condition but are sober no problem with order effect

Page 10

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this design combines advantages of both an
independent groups and a repeated measures design
achieving matched pairs of Ps is difficult and
time-consuming, complete matching of Ps on all
variables that might affect experimental performance
can rarely be achieved, this design therefore is
uncommon with their use being restricted to…


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