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RESEARCH METHODS
AIM- a statement of the area of research interest

To investigate how alcohol affects reaction time

HYPOTHESIS- a testable statement

DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS- A prediction which does tell you which group will do better (one tailed)

The more alcohol consumed, the slower the reaction time

NON DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS-…

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MATCHED PAIRS DESIGN

Participants are matched on important variables: in a reading study participants might be matched on age.

+Controls participant variables. No fatigue, bordem or screw you effects.

-May not control all participant variables. Could be difficult to match participants. Time and money.

SELECTING PARTICIPANTS

To reduce bias…

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Individual differences
Helping hand effect
Screw you effect
Hawthorn effect (when someone watches you , you act differently)




Investigator effects

Loud
Bossy
Male
Female
Race
Explaining tasks differently to each group
Greenspoon effect(reactions `aa, oo' change participants result.)

Order effects

Practice effects- going faster because you know what you're…

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Lab Controlled environment in artificial conditions.
Participants know they are in a study but do not
always know the true aim.
Field Natural experiment and participants don't usually
know they are being tested.
Natural Things that just occur and results are recorded. IV
changes. Not manipulated because its unethical…

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Double blind design
Matched pairs or independent groups design (one condition)
Experimental realism (pps forget they're being watched)

INVESTIGATOR EFFECTS
Greenspoon effect (change due to reaction)
Loose procedure /lack of control
Effected by interviewees appearance or personality

EXTERNAL VALIDITY

How far you can generalise results
Ecological validity
Population validity…

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METHODS OF INVESTIGATION


OBSERVATION

Natural environment
High ecological validity

PARTICIPANT
Observer becomes part of the group

NON PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION
Observation watches and records data

CORRELATION
The relationship between 2 things




Observations Questionnaire Interviews Case Studies Correlational
s analysis

Strengths -Prevents time -Detailed data
wasting. -Easy to analyse -More depth…

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Lab experiment Stressful situation and physiological harm

Field/Natural experiment Hard to get consent
Observations Invasion of privacy and hard to get consent

Questionnaires and interviews Hard to maintain confidentiality and right to
withdraw
Case studies Hard to maintain confidentiality and right to
withdraw it is also an invasion of…

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