Research Methods

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Kate
  • Created on: 02-05-13 09:56
Preview of Research Methods

First 228 words of the document:

1
RESEARCH METHODS
AIM- a statement of the area of research interest
To investigate how alcohol affects reaction time
HYPOTHESIS- a testable statement
DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS- A prediction which does tell you which group will do better (one tailed)
The more alcohol consumed, the slower the reaction time
NON DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS- A prediction that doesn't predict which group will do better
Alcohol affects reaction time
NULL HYPOTHESIS-A prediction of no difference
Alcohol will have no effect on reaction time.
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE- What you change
DEPENDANT VARIABLE ­ What you measure
EXTRANEOUS VARIABLE ­ something that might change the dependant variable
CONFOUNDING VARIABLE- something that affects the dependant variable
ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY ­ Results are valid for whole population
DEMAND CHARACTERISTICS- things in an experiment which help people realise what they are being tested for so
they act differently
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
INDEPENDENT GROUPS DESIGN
Two groups, one controlled, one not. Compare results.
+No order effects. No practice of fatigue effects. Boys v Girls
-Individual differences. There are twice as many participants.
REPEATED MEASURES DESIGN
Experiment is repeated using same participants.
+Individual differences minimised. Fewer people are needed
-One test might be harder. The participants might try and be helpful ­ demand characteristics. Screw you
effect. Bordem.

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

MATCHED PAIRS DESIGN
Participants are matched on important variables: in a reading study participants might be matched on age.
+Controls participant variables. No fatigue, bordem or screw you effects.
-May not control all participant variables. Could be difficult to match participants. Time and money.
SELECTING PARTICIPANTS
To reduce bias
Opportunity Sample
Whoever is near
Volunteer Sample
Advertise, whoever turns up
Systematic Sample
System e.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Individual differences
Helping hand effect
Screw you effect
Hawthorn effect (when someone watches you , you act differently)
Investigator effects
Loud
Bossy
Male
Female
Race
Explaining tasks differently to each group
Greenspoon effect(reactions `aa, oo' change participants result.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Lab Controlled environment in artificial conditions.
Participants know they are in a study but do not
always know the true aim.
Field Natural experiment and participants don't usually
know they are being tested.
Natural Things that just occur and results are recorded. IV
changes. Not manipulated because its unethical or
impossible, i.e dwarfism.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Double blind design
Matched pairs or independent groups design (one condition)
Experimental realism (pps forget they're being watched)
INVESTIGATOR EFFECTS
Greenspoon effect (change due to reaction)
Loose procedure /lack of control
Effected by interviewees appearance or personality
EXTERNAL VALIDITY
How far you can generalise results
Ecological validity
Population validity
Historical validity
ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY
Mundane realism; how does it relate to the real world.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

METHODS OF INVESTIGATION
OBSERVATION
Natural environment
High ecological validity
PARTICIPANT
Observer becomes part of the group
NON PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION
Observation watches and records data
CORRELATION
The relationship between 2 things
Observations Questionnaire Interviews Case Studies Correlational
s analysis
Strengths -Prevents time -Detailed data
wasting. -Easy to analyse -More depth -Precise,
-High ecological -Quick & easy -Face to face quantative way
validity.
-Easy to circulate -Can handle -Measurement of
-Demand
characteristics -Combined with sensitive topics many variables
reduced.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Lab experiment Stressful situation and physiological harm
Field/Natural experiment Hard to get consent
Observations Invasion of privacy and hard to get consent
Questionnaires and interviews Hard to maintain confidentiality and right to
withdraw
Case studies Hard to maintain confidentiality and right to
withdraw it is also an invasion of privacy…read more

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all resources »