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AS Research Methods

TOPIC ANALYSIS & EVALUATION
Types of research Lab experiment Strengths of lab experiment:
A true experiment has three key features: Extraneous variables can be controlled we can infer
methods An independent variable (IV) manipulated by the cause & effect
Experiments researcher in an attempt to produce a…

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Questionnaire Surveys Ethical issues ­ in many cases the people have no idea that
A questionnaire survey involves asking participants they are being watched. This means ethics dictates that
questions about, for example, their attitudes, observations can only be carried out in public places.
behaviours or intentions. The use of…

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time) and also what behavioural categories need to be When sources can be retained or accessed by others (e.g.,
used. Once the items to be recorded have been chosen back copies of magazines or video's of people giving
a checklist can be developed to record the speeches) findings can be…

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Weaknesses
Participant variables can never be matched in all respects
Matching participants is time consuming and difficult
More participants are required
Pilot studies Pilot study can find out any possible problems with the
Pilot studies A small scale trial run of the actual study that is done procedures before invest…

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Don't use more than 100 participants but generalise
Selection of findings to whole population. The participants
participants selected are called a sample .
Sample is taken from a larger population called the
target population , which consists of all members of
the group from which the sample has been taken.…

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Reliability & Reliability Assessing & improving reliability
validity Results are reliable if they are consistent. E.g. if an Partial or complete replication of studies
Results of studies experiment is repeated then if the results are the same In observation studies, behaviour should be observed by
each time it is reliable…

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Graphs & charts Choose a bar chart if data is in categories that are distinct from each other and not continuous (called nominal data)

Bar charts, Choose a histogram if the data is in categories that are continuous with each other (e.g. age 1120, 2130 etc)
histograms,
frequency
Choose a…

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