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A2 PSYCHOLOGY
AQA
Research methods




PSYA4 - Research
methods

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RESEARCH METHODS

Features of a science
replicability
objectivity
theory construction
hypothesis testing
use of empirical methods

Conventions of reporting on psychological investigations
abstract
introduction
method
results
discussion
references
appendies

Reliability and validity
Internal reliability
Internal validity
External reliability
External validity

Statistical tests
Chi square
Mann-whitney
Wilcoxon
Spearman's Rho


Levels of…

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Features of a science

- data should be measurable
- should not be biased by opinion or expectation
Objectivity -
-
high level of control is essential to maintain objectivity
Empirical methods (e.g. lab experiments) therefore produce
objective data as they take place in a controlled and
standardised environment




-…

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Reporting psychological investigations


Abstract = Overview of the whole report to enable the reader to
decide whether to read on (whether its relevant to them)




= Provides context for the study

Intro - describes existing studies and theories in that field
- ends with aims and hypotheses




Method = Description…

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-all aspect of the investigation are scrutinised/ assessed by psychologists in the same
field, they should be objective and unknown to the author of the research

MAIN AIMS

1. Allocate research funding
- whether or not to award funding for a
proposed research project

2. Validate the quality and relevance…

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Reliability and Validity

Reliability = consistency of research
Internal = consistency within a test
External = can repeat the test and gain similar
findings

Validity = extent to which a test measures what
its supposed to

Internal = is the IV changing the DV
External = can we generalise findings…

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Statistical tests
1. Are you looking for a difference or relationship?
2. Which level of measurement is the data?
3. What is the experimental design?




YES
Nominal Chi - Square
data?

NO




YES

Correlation? Spearman's Rho



NO




YES
Mann - Whitney


Independent
groups
NO Wilcoxon

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Levels of measurement
Interval = data is measured in equal units (e.g. Temperature)


Ordinal = ordered in ranked data or
subjective data (scores are equally spaced)




Nominal = Number of people who fall into each category
- categories of data

e.g. bar charts or attachment types




CHI - SQUARE is…

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Significance and probability
-inferential tests provide a means of assessing whether any pattern
in data collected id=s meaningful or significant
-probability = likelihood that a pattern of results could arise by
chance
-probability levels represent acceptable levels of risk (e.g.
p<0.05) of making a type 1 error
2 tails
TYPE…

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Comments

EmmaConnieRusso

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Just wanted to say this looks really good and concise! Thank you for sharing :) 

charlotteT

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This is a fantastic resource and has really helped me understand research methods! thank you

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