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A2 PSYCHOLOGY
AQA
PSYA4 - Research
methods

Page 2

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RESEARCH METHODS
Features of a science replicability objectivity theory construction hypothesis
testing use of empirical methods
Conventions of reporting on psychological investigations abstract introduction
method results discussion references appendies
Reliability and validity Internal reliability Internal validity External reliability
External validity
Statistical tests Chi square Mann-whitney Wilcoxon Spearman's Rho
Levels of…

Page 3

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Features of a science
Objectivity
----
data should be measurable should not be biased by opinion or expectation high level of control
is essential to maintain objectivity Empirical methods (e.g. lab experiments) therefore produce
objective data as they take place in a controlled and standardised environment

-
key aim of…

Page 4

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-
scientists construct theories to enable us to understand the

---
world around us a good theory generates testable expectations empirical methods are used to
test hypotheses If the scientist fails to find support = their theory may need to be amended

Page 5

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Discussion = Concludes upon findings

-
refer back to existing studies -
provide evaluation and RWA


Reference
Appendies
= copy of questionnaire, consent forms etc.



Abstract
= Overview of the whole report to enable the reader to decide whether to read on (whether its
relevant to them)



Method
= Description…

Page 6

Preview of page 6
-
all aspect of the investigation are scrutinised/ assessed by psychologists in the same
field, they should be objective and unknown to the author of the research
MAIN AIMS
1. Allocate research funding
- whether or not to award funding for a proposed research project
2. Validate the quality and…

Page 7

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Reliability and Validity
Reliability
= consistency of research
Internal = consistency within a test External = can repeat the test and gain similar
findings

Validity
= extent to which a test measures what its supposed to
Internal = is the IV changing the DV External = can we generalise findings…

Page 8

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1. Are you looking for a difference or relationship? 2. Which level of measurement is the data?
3. What is the experimental design?


Nominal data?
YES
NO


YES Correlation?
NO
YES


Independent groups
NO

Statistical tests
Spearman's Rho
Mann - Whitney
Chi - Square
Wilcoxon

Page 9

Preview of page 9
Levels of measurement
Interval =
data is measured in equal units (e.g. Temperature)

Ordinal =
ordered in ranked data or subjective data (scores are equally spaced)

Nominal =
Number of people who fall into each category - categories of data
e.g. bar charts or attachment types

Spearman's Rho
is used…

Page 10

Preview of page 10
-
test of difference -
ordinal/interval data -
repeated measures and matched pairs

Comments

EmmaConnieRusso

Report

Just wanted to say this looks really good and concise! Thank you for sharing :) 

charlotteT

Report

This is a fantastic resource and has really helped me understand research methods! thank you

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Pages in this set

Page 1

Preview of page 1
A2 PSYCHOLOGY
AQA
PSYA4 - Research
methods

Page 2

Preview of page 2
RESEARCH METHODS
Features of a science replicability objectivity theory construction hypothesis
testing use of empirical methods
Conventions of reporting on psychological investigations abstract introduction
method results discussion references appendies
Reliability and validity Internal reliability Internal validity External reliability
External validity
Statistical tests Chi square Mann-whitney Wilcoxon Spearman's Rho
Levels of…

Page 3

Preview of page 3
Features of a science
Objectivity
----
data should be measurable should not be biased by opinion or expectation high level of control
is essential to maintain objectivity Empirical methods (e.g. lab experiments) therefore produce
objective data as they take place in a controlled and standardised environment

-
key aim of…

Page 4

Preview of page 4
-
scientists construct theories to enable us to understand the

---
world around us a good theory generates testable expectations empirical methods are used to
test hypotheses If the scientist fails to find support = their theory may need to be amended

Page 5

Preview of page 5
Discussion = Concludes upon findings

-
refer back to existing studies -
provide evaluation and RWA


Reference
Appendies
= copy of questionnaire, consent forms etc.



Abstract
= Overview of the whole report to enable the reader to decide whether to read on (whether its
relevant to them)



Method
= Description…

Page 6

Preview of page 6
-
all aspect of the investigation are scrutinised/ assessed by psychologists in the same
field, they should be objective and unknown to the author of the research
MAIN AIMS
1. Allocate research funding
- whether or not to award funding for a proposed research project
2. Validate the quality and…

Page 7

Preview of page 7
Reliability and Validity
Reliability
= consistency of research
Internal = consistency within a test External = can repeat the test and gain similar
findings

Validity
= extent to which a test measures what its supposed to
Internal = is the IV changing the DV External = can we generalise findings…

Page 8

Preview of page 8
1. Are you looking for a difference or relationship? 2. Which level of measurement is the data?
3. What is the experimental design?


Nominal data?
YES
NO


YES Correlation?
NO
YES


Independent groups
NO

Statistical tests
Spearman's Rho
Mann - Whitney
Chi - Square
Wilcoxon

Page 9

Preview of page 9
Levels of measurement
Interval =
data is measured in equal units (e.g. Temperature)

Ordinal =
ordered in ranked data or subjective data (scores are equally spaced)

Nominal =
Number of people who fall into each category - categories of data
e.g. bar charts or attachment types

Spearman's Rho
is used…

Page 10

Preview of page 10
-
test of difference -
ordinal/interval data -
repeated measures and matched pairs

Comments

EmmaConnieRusso

Report

Just wanted to say this looks really good and concise! Thank you for sharing :) 

charlotteT

Report

This is a fantastic resource and has really helped me understand research methods! thank you