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The genetic information passed from parent to offspring is
contained in genes carried by chromosomes in the nucleus.
Sexual reproduction produces offspring that resemble their
parents, but are not identical to them.
Offspring resemble their parents because they contain genetic
information passed on to them by their parents.
Chromosomes and genes
A gene is a section of DNA [DNA: The material inside the nucleus of
cells, carrying genetic information. DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic
Acid. ] that carries the code for a particular protein. Different genes
control the development of different characteristics of an
organism. Many genes are needed to carry all the genetic information
for a whole organism. Chromosomes, found in the cell nucleus, contain
Nucleus, chromosome and gene
The number of genes and chromosomes varies from species to
species. For example, cells in human beings have 46 chromosomes
that carry about 30,000 genes in each cell and cells in fruit flies have
eight chromosomes that carry about 13,600 genes.
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Organisms have sex cells called gametes. In human beings, the male
sex cells are called sperm and the female sex cells are called eggs or
Sexual reproduction happens when a male gamete and a female
gamete join. This fusion of gametes is called fertilisation. Sexual
reproduction allows some of the genetic information from each parent
to mix, producing offspring that resemble their parents, but are not
identical to them. In this way, sexual reproduction leads to variety in the