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Slide 1

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OCR A2 Philosophy of Religion
Religious Language
The Vienna Circle
By Beth Haworth…read more

Slide 2

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Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy
· Group of early twentieth-century philosophers
who sought to reconceptualise empiricism.
· Theories were constantly changing but
disagreed with a priori statements.
· Developed an early form of logical positivism.…read more

Slide 3

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· Schlick- father of logical positivism. Founder
of the Vienna circle. Believed statements must
be verifiable to be considered genuine.
· Wittgenstein- wrote Tractatus Logico-
Philosophicus. Suggested concept of
"language games".
· Neurath- very strict in the view that
statements should be proven by science. Also
did not trust the unreliable sense perceptions.…read more

Slide 4

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What is logical positivism?
· A systematic reduction of human knowledge
to logical and scientific foundations.
· Only allows for the use of logical tautologies
(see glossary) and first-person observations
from experience.
· Therefore dismisses any statements about the
metaphysical world (God and the divine).…read more

Slide 5

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How has it been developed since then?
· A.J. Ayer- broke down
verification into statements that
are verifiable in a weak sense (i.
e. Science can go some way to
proving that they are true), and
strongly verifiable statements,
which science can prove to be
true. He later stated that only
strongly verifiable statements
are "factually significant".…read more

Slide 6

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· Tautology- an instance of such a form, as "This candidate
will win or will not win." Must be true but does not tell us
anything new.
· Logical positivism- a philosophical movement which stresses
the importance of scientific evidence when making a
· A priori- Not based on empirical data, but on reason alone.
· Metaphysical world- Anything outside of our world e.g. God.
· Language games- the concept that different language is used
in different areas of life and we cannot transfer words from
one area of life to talk about another.
· Proposition- statement
· Factually significant- something which is considered to be
genuine/ the truth, having been verified.…read more


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