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Holy War
A holy war is one that is fought over religious issues by people who believe that its
what God wants. Some people say that on some occasions its necessary and right to
use violence to defend a religion.
There have been numerous "Holy wars" fought in the past. The best example is the
Crusades. These were thought for over 100 years, and were based on the belief that
Christians should take back the holy land (Jerusalem), from the Muslims that ruled
it.
Many Christian churches now wouldn't support a Holy war.…read more

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Just War
A just war is one that's fought in accordance to particular conditions. The idea was
brought forward by a Roman philosopher called Cicero.
Jus in bellum (whether its Jus in bello (the correct Jus post bello (peace after
right to go to war): conduct of war): war):
· Must be a just cause · War must only be fought · Must be a just cause to
· Only a legitimate against enemy soldiers end the war
authority can start the and civilians must be · Must be no revenge taken
war protected · Peace terms should be
· War must be fought with · Force used must be made and accepted
the right intentions proportional to the wrong
· Must be a reasonable that's been done
chance of success · Minimal force/deaths/and
destruction…read more

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Attitudes Towards Violence
and Pacifism
Pacifism is the belief that all fighting and violence is wrong.
Many Christians are pacifists, and say that agape (Selfless love for others) means
that violence should never be acceptable.
Quakers are a religious society of friends, who believe that any type of violence is
wrong. This is because they see God in everyone and to harm anyone means
harming God.
There are accounts in the bible that support the idea that violence is wrong:
"Blessed are the peacemakers..."
"All who draw the sword shall die by the sword"…read more

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Attitudes Towards Violence
and Pacifism
Violence is force that's often used to harm others.
There are a few occasions in the bible where Jesus seemed to be behaving in a
violent manner.
When he throws moneylenders out of the temple and pushes over tables in
anger.…read more

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Justice and the Aims of
Punishment
Justice is just behaviour or treatment, and is one of the four cardinal virtues. The
concept of justice is explored in the bible.
"Anyone who does wrong will be repaid for his wrong, and there is no
favouritism."
The aims of punishment are:
· Deterrence ­ To stop the person and/or others from committing the same crime.
· Protection ­ To protect society and the victims of the crime from others.
· Retribution ­ So that society and the victims of the crime can see that the person
has been punished.
· Reformation ­ To give the criminal a chance to reform and better their life.
Christians believe that criminals should be given the chance to reform based on the
idea of agape. Elizabeth Fry was a famous Quaker that worked to improve prison
conditions so that criminals could have a better chance at improving their lives.…read more

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