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Believing in God
Religious Upbringing: Personal Religious Experiences: Christian responses to unanswered Catechism of the Catholic
·Faith Schools ·Miracles prayers: Church:
·Prayer ·Numinous experience ·God can't say yes to all prayers as they "Do not be troubled if you
·Baptism ·Near death experience conflict do not immediately receive
·Worship ·Answers to prayers ·God is just so cannot grant selfish prayers from God what you ask
·Church ·God is like a father; giving us what we him; he desires to do
Causation: Design Argument: need but not all that we want something even greater
Reasons for Atheism: St Thomas William Paley ·Some prayers interfere with other's free than you, while you cling to
·Big Bang Theory is Aquinas ·Complexity and will Him in prayer"
cause of the Earth Law of cause and purpose requires ·God answers all prayers but sometimes
·Evolution explains effect God intelligence He says `no'.
complexity must be the cause ·The designer of ·God is omnibenevolent and so we should Problem of Evil:
·Existence of evil and of the Universe the Universe must trust him to do what is best for us even if it Only two can be true
suffering be God is not what we asked for.
·Unanswered prayers
·Non-religious "Everything that
upbringing happens has a "The Universe is a
Anthropic Design Argument:
cause. If we follow far more complex
Due to cosmic fine-tuning existence of life
Christian responses to that cause back to mechanism that a
would be very improbable if there was no
Atheism: the beginning we watch, and so, if a
designer if big bang was just slightly
·No conflict between come to a first watch needs a
stronger or weaker we wouldn't be alive.
science and religion e.g cause that started watchmaker, the
Chance of world being created by chance
Gregor Mendel- Monk everything off. This Universe needs a
is infinitely small hence chance of world
and Biologist cause was God" creator. The
being designed is 1- infinitely small number The Inconsistent Triad-
·Lots of reasons God creator must be
making it very likely the universe has a David Hume
allows suffering: no good God."
designer.
without bad, good can
come from suffering, Morality- some
suffering is a result of Against: Evidence: Against Anthropic design: religious people
misused free will, ·God needs a ·DNA; design in replication ·Perhaps we are finely tuned for the think that our morals
opportunity to be more cause ·Evolution universe and not the other way around must have come
loving ·Better ·Beauty of nature ·Multi-verse theory: there are multiple from a higher being
explanation: ·Like effects do not always universes which may contain life so life is and that our
matter of universe have like causes inevitable conscience is
is eternal no ·Unsound analogy ·Infinite regress the world has been there actually God guiding
first cause nature is more like a rock forever us so out morals are
which does not show signs ·We don't know the difference between a a sign of God's
of design than a watch designed and un-designed world existence.
·Epicurean hypothesis: order from chaos…read more

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Matters of Life and Death
Uk law on Abortion: Non religious reasons for belief in No belief in Life after death: Causes of poverty:
Up to 24 weeks with consent of 2 life after death: ·Lack of evidence ·Poor health
doctors if: ·Ghosts ·Materialism nothing more than ·Natural disasters
·Mothers life is in danger ·Paranormal physical world so once body is dead ·Overpopulation
·Will affect the mental health of ·Mediums nothing else Monism ·Little education
mother ·Near death experiences ·Atheism ·War
·Substantial risk of child being ·Evidence for reincarnation ·Unfair trade
disabled
Media: Christian reasons for Christians should end poverty:
·Another child poses a risk on the
Darren Brown Investigates belief in life after death: ·`Love thy neighbour' ­ Parable of the
mental/physical health of existing
Choosing to Die ·Jesus was resurrected Good Samaritan
children
Sally Morgan ·Heaven and Hell ·Situation Ethics
Pro-Life Judgement day ·Judgement day
·Sanctity of life Quakers: ·Roman Catholics ·Parable of the Sheep and the Goats
·`In the image of God he created them' ·Allow the giving of powerful believe in Purgatory EXAMPLE: Christian Aid and CAFOD
·Baby was born at 23 weeks which painkillers that shorten life as... waiting room, cleansing ·Disaster relief
suggests a baby can be viable before ·Lesser of 2 evils of sins ·Education
24 weeks so they should be protected ·Situation ethics ·Sustainable development
·Form of late contraception ·Golden Rule `Do unto others as you
·Adoption not abortion would have done unto you'
UK law on Euthanasia:
·Life begins at conception so it is killing
Church of England: ·Against law assisting could lead to accusation of murder or
·Allow turning off of life support manslaughter
machines as person is only staying ·Fact that patient wants to die is not a defence
alive because of ventilation machine ·Several cases where permission has been given to allow passive
Pro-choice: hence it is going against God's plan euthanasia e.g. Not providing food or water
·Lesser of two evils Media:
·Life begins at viability not conception Roman Catholics on Euthanasia: ·Religious people
·Mothers body so mothers choice Liberal Christians:
·Sanctity of life challenge non religious
·Back street abortions bad ·Love thy neighbour
·Thou shalt not kill- 6th commandment views so must accept
·Medical issue not political issue ·Golden Rule
·Palliative care is better criticism
·Ulitarianism- what brings out greatest ·Lesser of two evils
·More loving if child will have a ·Free press system and
good Evangelicals: media have right to
poor quality of life
·Should do everything to extend life opinion
Abortion- Roman Catholics and Evangelicals Catechism: ·Allow death= murder ·Wrong to intentionally
·Sanctity of life "We are stewards not offend people
·`in the image of God he created them' owners of the life God Liberal Christians: ·News should not
·Gift from God has entrusted to us. It is ·Doctors respect patients wishes persuade or undermine
·Adoption over killing not ours to dispose of" ·Situation Ethics religious beliefs
·`You knit me together in my mother's womb' ·God gives us free will respect it…read more

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Marriage and the Family
Catholics on contraception: Homosexuality: Divorce:
·Disrespects sanctity of life Roman Catholics: ·"What God has put together let no man separate"
·Ruin's God's plan ·stay celibate
·Leads to promiscuity ·"Contrary to natural law since they Protestants and Liberal Christians:
·Could lead to an abortion close the sexual act to the gift of life" Allow divorce if marriage is unhappy or adultery
·"Before I formed you in the womb I Catechism Remarriage is possible
knew you" BUT homosexuals should be treated "Anyone who divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and
·Unnatural with respect, compassion and marries another commits adultery"
·Natural family planning okay using sensitivity.
knowledge of menstrual cycle Evangelical Protestants: Roman Catholics:
· Gay is not okay "You shall not lie with ·Broken a promise to God
Other Christians say okay for married a male as with a woman; it is an ·Annulment declaration that a marriage never existed
couples: abomination" ·Allow separation
·Quality of life Quakers: Jesus never condemned ·No remarriage
·Should be able to have sex without homosexuality and preached love not ·Catechism: "A marriage cannot be dissolved by any human
possibility of creating new life hatred power or for any reason other than death"
·Can be in a loving faithful relationship Liberal Protestants: Homosexual
without wanting children relationships are acceptable as the Catholic attitude to family life:
Bible needs to be reinterpreted for Basic unit of society
But: modern day Place where children learn about morality and Christianity
Encourages premarital sex which Church of England:
could lead to promiscuity and STIs Homosexuals can become priests but "Well being of the individual person and of both human and
AND Abortifacients like the morning must remain celibate Christian society is closely bound up with the healthy state of
after pill is not okay to use family life"- Catechism
Church helps with family life:
Financial aid Contraception:
Counselling ·Barrier Methods
Catholic attitude to sex and marriage: Sunday school ·Hormonal methods
·Man leaves his father and mother and Youth club ·Sterilisation
clings to his wife and they become one Family friendly parishes ·Abortifacients
flesh Catholic schools
·Sex and marriage is unitive and Worship and prayer
creative go together and so sex Training priests to support couples
outside of marriage is wrong Opportunities to celebrate marriage
·"Be fruitful and multiply" Marriage preparation courses
·"Thou shalt not commit adultery"…read more

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Islam
Islam and sex outside of Family in Islam: Contraception:
marriage: ·Muslim parents believe they will Some say no:
·Forbidden be judged by God on how well ·"You should not kill your children for fear of want"
·Shari'ah law says sex only in they have brought up their ·They believe that God created sex for having children
marriage children ·They are opposed to abortion and so would not allow any
·Sex is for procreation ·Basic unit of society contraceptives that acted as abortifacients
·Adultery is condemned by God in ·The Prophet Muhammad
the Qur'an married and raised a family so Some say okay:
·Adultery breaks contract both Muslims must marry and raise a ·Qur'an says God does not place extra burdens on his followers and
husband and wife agreed to family contraception stops extra burdens
·Harming family is condemned by ·Without family children would ·Islam puts mothers life first
the Qur'an and Shari'ah not learn what is right and what is ·Muslim lawyers agree that contraception is different from abortion and
wrong so should be permitted
Divorce ·Prophet Muhammad said that natural methods of contraception such
Some Muslims say no: Islam and homosexuality: as abstinence at certain times is okay
·Prophet Muhammad said Majority:
`divorce is the most hated of ·Homosexuality is condemned by Abortion:
lawful things' the Qur'an Many:
·Belief that harm to children will ·The Prophet Muhammad ·Allow abortions up to 120 days of pregnancy for reasons such as poor
send them to hell and divorce is condemned homosexuality health of mother/ baby
likely to harm children ·God says in the Qur'an that ·Hadith says foetus does not receive its soul until 120 days
marriage between a man and a ·Shari'ah says mother's life takes priority
Most Muslims say okay: woman is the only lawful form of
·Qur'an permits divorce and sets sex Some believe:
out terms for custody of children ·All Muslims should try to have a ·Life begins at conception
and care for divorced wives family but homosexuals cannot ·Qu'ran says murder is wrong and abortion is murder
·Shari'ah permits divorce
·Lesser of 2 evils Minority: Some say only if mothers life is at risk as lesser of two evils and Shari'ah
·Marriage is a contract so divorce ·Islam is a religion of tolerance says mothers life must always take priority
is just the contract coming to an not hate
end ·God created and loves all people Life after Death:
whatever their sexual orientation ·Belief in life after death is one of
·Believe that people are born the 6 articles of faith
homosexual ·Life is a test from God which Five pillars of Islam
must involve judgement day and 1. Shahadah
·Eat halal food rewards for those who pass which 2. Praying 5 times a day
·Dress modestly can only happen if there is life 3. Fasting during Ramadan
·Don't drink alcohol Muslim belief in resurrection means that some after death 4. Paying zakah
·No gambling Muslims are worried about post mortems and ·Gives life meaning and purpose 5. Going on Haij
·No interest rates transplant surgery.…read more

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Religion and Community Cohesion
Catholics: Church supports asylum seekers and Vicar of Dibley:
·Women cannot be Priests as Jesus immigrant workers by Sexism in Christianity
had 12 male apostles/ disciples ·Translating information leaflets
·Adam was created first ·Helping find suitable accommodation Homosexuality in Bend it Like Beckham:
·Jesus was a man and the priest ·Providing legal advice and support ·Jules's mum blames football for making her daughter gay
represents Jesus in the mass ·Providing English language courses ·Tony is portrayed as the only sensitive caring and intelligent
·"It was Eve than was deceived"- St ·Celebrating mass in other languages guy emphasises that homosexuals are different from
Paul heterosexuals
·"Get your lesbian shoes out of my shoes"
Evangelicals: ·Tony comes out and Jess says "But you're Indian!"
Men and women have different roles ·Sexual preference used as a device of humour which is not
·Women should not have authority taken seriously
over men and a wife should submit to Inter-Faith Movement
Inclusivist (Catholics): Christianity has St Peters Vision: God
her husband Encourages dialogue, understanding,
the whole truth and other religions asks him to eat meat
·St Paul said women should not speak tolerance and cooperation between
have some truth so some non- which is unclean
in Church religions
Christians may also go to heaven Realises that God does
Benefits of a multi-cultural society: Exclusivist (Protestants): Christianity is not show favouritism
Church of England:
·Music, food, clothes the whole truth. Other religions are "There is neither Jew
·Both male and female were created
·Creates net benefit false hence people who aren't nor Greek neither slave
in the image of God
·Brings necessary skills Christians cannot go to heaven nor free, neither male
·Women ordained as Priests as Jesus
·Promotes tolerance Pluralist: No religion has the whole no r female for you are
treated women as his equals
·Creates diversity truth. All religions are paths to God. all one in Christ"
·Jesus had disciples who stayed with
The Blind Men and the Elephant
him at the cross unlike his male
Disadvantages:
disciples who ran away
·Migrants drawn financially
·After resurrection Jesus appeared Islam and racism:
·Take British jobs
first to his women disciples ·God created people from one couple
·Leads to tension and violence
·British identity at risk ·Ummah
·Prophet Muhammad appointed a Black African person to call
Islam and women:
Modern: people to prayer
Traditionally:
·Men should support women because God has ·Qur'an teaches men and women are Catholics on Racism:
made them stronger equal ·God accepts all
·Qur'an says women have been created to bear ·Evidence that Prophet Muhammad ·Catechism "Every form of
children and men should provide for them encouraged both men and women to discriminating must be eradicated as
·Qur'an says men need more money than pray in the mosque incompatible with God's design" Issues:
women to provide for the family ·Women were religious leaders during ·"You are all one in Christ"- St Paul conversion,
·Traditional for only men to be imams and the early stage of Islam ·The Centurion's servant children,
attend mosque ·Agree with non religious arguments ·The Good Samaritan interfaith
for equal rights ·The Samaritan woman at the well marriages…read more

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