Reliability and validity

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Psychology unit 4 research methods revision
Reliability and validity
term description Causes of low How it is checked
Inter-rater The degree to which Poorly designed Correlational
reliability 2 or more observers behavioural analysis of the
record the same checklists readings can be
behaviour calculated.
Internal reliability The degree to which Questions which Split half
the self report measure different technique: the
measure aspects of human questionnaires are
consistently behaviour split into 2 and
measures the same from it 2 totals are
aspect of human calculated from the
behaviour responses. These
are then correlated.
External reliability The extent to which Changes in opinions Test retest: study
consistent or the or variation in the is repeated some
same results would way the study is time later and the 2
be gained if the carried out. sets of results are
study was measured for
replicated similarity using a
Internal validity The extent to which Extraneous Peer review and
a study measures variables such as comparing the
what it is supposed demand results of this
to be measuring. characteristics or investigation to
investigator other similar
effects. studies.
Ecological validity The extent o which Very artificial set Comparing the
results can be up which means the results to other
generalised to real behaviours will be similar situations
life. artificial and that might have used
different to the field experiments to
real life behaviour. collect their data.
Population validity The degree to which Biased samples Evaluating the
the findings can be sample and the
generalised to the sampling technique.
target population


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