Reliability and validity

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Research methods revision
Reliability and validity
test description What causes low How can it be
levels of it? checked?
Inter rater The degree to which 2 Poorly designed Correlational
reliability or more observers behavioural analysis of the
record the same checklists recordings can be
behaviour calculated
Internal The degree to which the Questions which Split half technique.
reliability self report measure measure different The questionnaire is
consistently measures aspects of human split inot 2 and from
the same aspect of behaviour it 2 totals are
human behaviour calculated from
these responses.
These are then
External Extent to which Changes in opinions Test retest- the
reliability consistent or the same or variations in the study is repeated
results would be gained way the study is some time later and
if the study was carried out the 2 sets of results
replicated are measured for
similarity by using a
Internal The extent to which a Extraneous variables Peer review and
validity study measures what it such as demand comparing results of
is supposed to be characteristics or this investigation to
measuring investigator effects other similar studies
Ecological Extent to which the Artificial set up Comparing results to
validity findings can be meaning participants other similar
generalised to real life. behaviours become situations which
This is sometimes called artificial and might have used
mundane realism. different to real observations in field
life behaviours experiments to
collect their data.
Population Degree to which the Biased samples Evaluating the
validity findings can be sample and sampling
generalised to the target technique


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