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PSYA3 ­ AQA Psychology Unit 3 Revision -Relationships


Reward/Need Satisfaction Theory:

Byrne and Clore asked people why they were attracted to their partners and they all said
things like their partner being attentive, supportive etc
Shows we are attracted to people who find it satisfying or gratifying to be…

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PSYA3 ­ AQA Psychology Unit 3 Revision -Relationships


Byrne, Clore and Smeaton suggest that people select partners by sorting potentials for
dissimilarity and avoid those who are too different leaving those similar
Byrne's model emphasises similarity of personality and attitudes
Personality ­ this is not always the case as…

Page 3

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PSYA3 ­ AQA Psychology Unit 3 Revision -Relationships


Exchange has been used to explain why people leave/stay in an abusive relationship
Rusbult and Martz argue that when investments are high (children, financial security) and
alternatives low this would be viewed as a profitable situation
Comparison level is supported by…

Page 4

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PSYA3 ­ AQA Psychology Unit 3 Revision -Relationships

Still concerns with equity but partners tend to believe it will balance out in the long run
How does the role of relationship equity come into marital disruptions
Demaris looked to see if they were associated with each other and found using…

Page 5

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PSYA3 ­ AQA Psychology Unit 3 Revision -Relationships

Holt and stone found that there is little decrease in relationship satisfaction as long as
lovers reunite regularly


Gender differences such as women being more likely to stress unhappiness and
incompatibility as reasons whereas men are usually upset by sexual withholding…

Page 6

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PSYA3 ­ AQA Psychology Unit 3 Revision -Relationships

Parental investment theory suggests that men evolve a desire for casual sex but females
aren't subjected to the same evolutionary pressure
Basically in a year a male will be able to impregnate many females and therefore passed on
more copies of his…

Page 7

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PSYA3 ­ AQA Psychology Unit 3 Revision -Relationships

BUT for example Buss confirmed that men do choose younger women and when men
divorce they will go for an increasingly younger women

Parental investment theory

Sex differences:

Males have the ability to opt out of parental investment whereas females cannot

Page 8

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PSYA3 ­ AQA Psychology Unit 3 Revision -Relationships

When offspring are young and helpless it is in the interest of the parents to invest in the
helpless on rather than the older one who are less helpless
When children are older parents can best maximise their reproductive fitness by directing…

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PSYA3 ­ AQA Psychology Unit 3 Revision -Relationships

Non-westerns focus on interdependence and group goals and interests are main concern
Continuity and discontinuity - Chinese regard for heritage and ancestry and suspicion of
change and American culture has an emphasis on progress with change being inevitable and
This is…

Page 10

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PSYA3 ­ AQA Psychology Unit 3 Revision -Relationships

Evidence for universality of romantic love comes from Bartels and Zeki who claimed to
discovered a part of the brain which lights up on the fMRI of those in love
Important to distinguish cultural differences due to lab studies where people bring…


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