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BREAKDOWN OF RELATIONSHIPS

Reasons for relationship breakdown
Lack of skills, People may lack interpersonal skills. May not be conversationalist and
stuggle to indicate their interest in other people. Duck `this lack of social skills may be
interpreted as not being interested so the relationships may breakdown before it gets
going.'…

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1. Breakdown. One of the partners becomes distressed about the way the
relationship is conducted. `I can't take this anymore'
2. Intrapyschic Processes. A brooding focus on partners `faults' and their own
costs, Alternatives re-evaluated. Nothing is said to the partner, although
the dissatisfied partner may express their dissatisfaction in…

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FORMATION OF
RELATIONSHIPS.

Matching hypothesis.
Forming relationships with someone equally as attractive `a good match'
Affects same sex friendships, couples, cohabitants etc.
Less attractive people may be trading other assets (humour, wealth, status)

Walster got people at a dance to rate each other on physical attractiveness. Then asked who
would…

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Social exchange theory.
Rewards and costs.

Rewards = Money, status, affection
Costs = Commitment, time, energy, Money, loss of other potential romances.

Relationships are formed by two individuals weighing up the potential costs and
rewards of being involved with the other.
REWARDS > COSTS = Profitable = formation
Individuals try…

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MAINTENANCE OF
RELATIONSHIPS
Reward/need theory. (SET ALSO EXPLAINS
MAINTENANCE)
This theory states that we become attracted to people through
classical or operant conditioning:
Operant conditioning: Rewarding stimuli provoke positive feelings in us, so we are more
likely to be attracted to them. Punishing stimuli provoke negative feelings in us, so…

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X Aron Et al; Suggests that whole reward/need process evolved to speed up the process of
finding a mate.
X Most studies are done in the lab = lack mundane realism

RELATIONSHIPS IN DIFFERENT CULTURES
Individualistic cultures; emphasis on `I' more than `we'. Individual rights and
goals seen as more…

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+ In Japan (collectivist) they found more evidence of rules which stressed
obedience to superiors and maintenance of group harmony.

Sub cultural relationships

1. Friendships; Friendship is more important to middle classes than working
classes, who rely more on family relationships.
+ Shucksmith; found evidence that young people from Middle…

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SEXUAL SELECTION
1. Resources; Women seek men who offer resources it is innate, as in evolutionary
terms women need the men to provide
i. When a man was placed in a shop window and perceived not to be
wealthy he was rated less attractive as when he was place in…

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PARENTAL INVESTMENT
Males can opt out of parental investment in a way females cannot.

Females invest more; human infants are born immature due to enlargement of the skull
and so are more dependent on others than animals. Additionally many human mothers
breastfeed their young and so are more burdened by…

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CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENT EXPERIENCES
INFLUENCES ON ADULT RELATIONSHIPS
Internal Working Model;
Provides the child with a framework of how relationships work and informs beliefs
and understanding of themselves and others.
Experiences with adults help the child to realise whether or not they are lovable.
The child learns whether or not…

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