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the evolution of human behaviour;
All living species, including humans are like they are because of a process involving random genetic
processes over a period of time.
Those changes that enhanced an individual's ability to survive and reproduce in the environmental
conditions in which it lived were passed along from…

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human reproductive behaviour;
o The Environment of Evolutionary Adaptiveness (EEA) is the environment to which a species is
adapted and the set of selection pressures that operated at the time. This is generally regarded as
the time when our hunter-gatherer ancestors lived on the Savannah, stretching between 10,000 and

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o Facial symmetry- is a much better indicator of youth than of red lips; this is because although red lips
do promote youth, they can be faked [by lipstick], therefore males can be deceived. Facial
symmetry is harder to fake and is therefore more reliable.

o Humans, as a race,…

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partner selection;
The two sexes have different preferences on what they want in a partner.
These differences can be analysed by looking at dating agency adverts done by the two sexes.
Dunbar and Waynforth, 1995, carried out a study using 900 personal adverts from North American
Newspapers. They found that…

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differences in reproductive
As well as the difference in partner preference there are also differences in reproductive behaviours.
Although many similarities, there are differences and these are backed by research & include:

1. The tendency to engage in casual sex- a much documented difference between males and females

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differences; EXPLAINED!

The evolutionary theory sees these differences as originating through the process of natural and sexual
selection. According to the principle of natural selection, members of any species vary in terms of physical
aspects and behaviour. For example, height, weight & body shape…

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Factors Findings and evidence Expla
What do males Cunningham (1986) found that males prefer females with younger faces. Females who have small noses & large eyes Males pr
find attractive in are the most attractive. Some features associated with maturity such as prominent cheekbones and narrow cheeks youth, y

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parental investment theory;
One influential explanation of mate selection was proposed by Robert Trivers and called Parental
Investment (1972).

The approach suggests that differences between male and female preferences have their origins in
the different amount of parental investment put in by males and females.

The male investment is fairly…

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parental investment
Parental investment helps us to understand mate preferences.
- As a woman invests heavily in her child, she would seek a male with good genes to father her
- A man who shows commitment in the relationship, to ensure that he will stay around to help…

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sexual strategies theory;
Sexual strategies theory was developed as an extension of Trivers' theory by Buss & Schmidt (1993).
It accepts the idea that males and females differ when making sexual selection choices, but sexual
strategies aims to overcome criticisms of parental investment by looking at short term
relationships in…


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