Slides in this set
· What is a relationship?
· Why do we form relationships?
· What things do we look for in a relationship?
· Why do relationships breakdown?
These are the questions we will discover some answers
for while studying this unit.
First we will look at how relationships form.
So what do you look for in a relationship? Find out by
completing Exercise 21. We will read out some of
your adverts so make them interesting!
Theories of relationship formation
· These theories try to explain how and why we form
· You will need to be able to DESCRIBE and EVALUATE
them for the examination.
· You will need EVIDENCE to strengthen your…read more
Reward/need Satisfaction Theory (Clore &
Byrne, 1974): the why...
Theory in a nutshell: "We are attracted to individuals whose presence is
rewarding for us" Evidence: See resource booklet; `Factors influencing the
formation of attraction' for detail.
Research has shown that the following have reward value:
Proximity Physical closeness we are social animals and need to be with
Exposure and Familiarity Proximity increases possibility of interaction
(exposure) which leads to familiarity. We like familiar things and find
Similarity - "Birds of a feather flock together" This is rewarding as people
who think like us make us feel more confident of our own opinions
which boosts our self esteem. We also think that people like us will like
us, so we like them. This is called:
Reciprocal Liking "I like you because you like me!" If you know
someone likes you it makes you feel good and so is rewarding.
Physical Attractiveness According to the attractiveness stereotype (Dion
et al 1972) we think attractive looking people have more attractive
personalities , and we are rewarded with kudos of being with an
So where is the evidence for all this?…read more
Proximity: Liking People who are
· The single best predictor of attraction
· Where we live & work influences the friends we make.
"If you can't be with the one you love,
honey, love the one you're with."…read more
Proximity: Liking People who are Nearby
Evidence: Westgate West: Housing at MIT ~1949
· "Contrary to popular belief, I do
· Close friends: not believe that friends are
Next door neighbours: 41% necessarily the people you like
Two doors down: 22% best; they are merely the
people who got there first." (Sir
Opposite ends of hallway: Peter Ustinov, 1977)…read more
Why does Proximity Work?
More likely to meet, so more likely to form
The more often people are exposed to an
object, the more positively they evaluate
that object: Humans like familiar things,
they make us feel safe and happy which
is rewarding.…read more
Exposure/Familiarity Research Evidence
(Moreland & Beach, 1992)
Four women and a classroom
4 women attended class
· 1 women 0 times
· 1 woman 5 classes
· 1 woman 10 classes
· 1 woman 15 classes
Students rate women on traits at end of
Results The more classes the woman attended,
the more favorable her ratings became.…read more