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Slide 1

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All bachelors are unmarried men
Knowledge 1+1=2
A priori: justified using reason so
true by definition Truths
Necessary: true by
A posteriori: justified using defintion so
experience denying it = contradiction
Necessary: Contingent: can be
needed/must have denied without
Sufficient: enough
for all necessary
conditions Propositions
Terms Analytic: true by Circle is round
definition so
Predicate does not add
Arguments to the subject
Socrates is a man Deductive: it is
All men are mortal impossible for the
Socrates is mortal Synthetic: true by sense
premises to be true, but experience so
the conclusion to be Trivial: does not
lead to new Predicate does adds to
false the subject
logically follow/anayltic knowledge of truths
outside the mind
Inductive: the premises
are true, but it is Substantive: leads
improbable as to to knowledge of
Rained 20 days, so truths outside the
will rain tomorrow whether the conclusion
is mind
Synthetic/contingent Note: ideas differ from knowledge.
Knowledge= true…read more

Slide 2

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Hume, Locke
A posteriori Synthetic:
only experience gains new knowledge
Synthetic= substantive Complex impressions made up
of individual parts/ atoms
Copy Principle: ideas are
copies of impressions
Empiricists Principle: no
impression, no idea
Tabula Rasa: `blank slate'
At birth the human mind is blank
Why? Innate ideas do not exist (Locke)
Words stand for ideas, ideas
stand for sense impressions eg Hume's Fork
External: senses knowledge
Impressions Memory Ideas Imagination
Internal: emotions mind combine/ augment ideas…read more

Slide 3

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Hume's Fork
used as a criterion to establish what is and isn't knowledge,
if neither then `commit it to the flames.'
Relation of Ideas Matters of Fact
A priori A posteriori
Analytic Synthetic
True by definition Test through senses
Trivial Substantive
Logically necessary Contingent
Deductive Inductive
`All sons have fathers' `The chair is blue'
Rationalists claim A priori Synthetic knowledge can exist
Eg physics/geometry- discover the world through reason
A.J. Ayer's verification principle: to be meaningful, proposition must either be empirically verifiable
or analytic
BUT...This rules out many important things: religion- GOD, aesthetic, metaphysical
AND...self- referentially incoherent: neither analytic nor empirically verifiable.…read more

Slide 4

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Strengths Weaknesses
Appeal to common sense: `seeing is -raised by the issue of sense impressions as
believing.' exclusive
Example of blind person can not have Scepticism of the external world
sense impression of the colour blue
therefore no idea. Problem of communication
-but can gain impressions through other senses
Can have ideas of things you've never
E.g. can imagine a `golden mountain'
(Hume) by combining `gold' and Only weakness Hume admits to:
`mountain' If someone were presented with all
the shades of blue but one ­ they
would be able to imagine it.
Idea of God: reflection on the operation of our own minds
and augment its qualities without limit…read more

Slide 5

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Knowledge of..
The External World
(Jonathan Bennett)
Perceiver Impression Object
V of P stops us experiencing the real world and only perceive through sensory
If ideas are derived from sense impressions, we are not to know anything else but them
eg. a stone feels cold to a human, but hot to a reptile. Sense data does not represent
the object.
Banging your head against a wall is still a sense impression does not prove external
stand for stand for
Words Ideas Impressions External World…read more

Slide 6

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problem of sharing ideas
Ideas and impressions are exlcusive we can not know other people's as we have not got
their experiences
stand stand stand Impressions
Words Ideas Impressions
for for for
Therefore any meaning words derive from sense impressions
Problem: one person's ideas and impressions are different to another,
yet the words are the same so never mean the same thing.
e.g. I see the colour `blue' but someone else sees it as what I would call `red.'
That is irrelevant, as there is still understanding between the two people
Scepticism about the external world and the problem of communication
Def: only my mind and its ideas exist, only thing that can be known with certainty.
`the mind is its one place and in itself' Milton…read more

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