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Inductive and deductive arguments
Inductive argument is one in which the premises are supposed to support the conclusion in a way that if the premises are true it's improbable that the conclusion is false. Thus the conclusion follows the premises and
inferences. This is shown in that; Socrates was Greek ­ Greeks eat fish ­ Socrates ate fish. From the premises being true it is improbable that the conclusion is false but it has no certainty either ­ the conclusion is not
true 100% as it is based on the inferences from the premises.
On the other hand, deductive arguments are ones in which it is impossible for the conclusion to be wrong is the premises are true. Through a deductive argument you will gain a definitive proof of the truth. For
example; All men are mortal ­ Socrates was a man ­ Socrates was mortal. From this you can see that because the premises are true the conclusion is also true and we know this with 100% certainty.
A priori & A posteriori
A priori ­ knowledge from reason that does not require experience to be known to be true
"All bachelors are unmarried / Triangles have three sides"
A posteriori - knowledge gained from experience
"Snow is white"
Explain and illustrate what is meant by the claim that experience is intelligible only because we possess a conceptual scheme
The claim that we can only understand our experiences because we possess a conceptual scheme is made by both Kant and Sapir & Whorf who both agreed on conceptual schemes but disagreed on the kind of
conceptual scheme we have. Kant argued that we all possess the same basic conceptual scheme from birth whereas linguistics Sapir-Whorf argued that we have individual conceptual schemes, which are molded by
our language.
Kant made the claim that to be able to think about our experiences we have the possession of a conceptual scheme ­ a basic one, which everybody supposedly has. He thought to make sense of our experience we
need to be able to think about them otherwise there is just a `buzz'. Suppose you see a boat in a river and you see it again at the end of the river, through our ability to think about our experiences due to our conceptual
scheme we can come to the conclusion that the boat has moved up the river.
Sapir-Whorf had a different theory of conceptual schemes, which they claimed to be reflective of our culture, individuality, and molded by our language. People with different conceptual schemes have different
realities so what is real for an Amazonian tribes person is different to what is real for a person from the UK. Through their difficulty in trying to translate the concept of time for Hopi Indians they concluded that
language is a reflection of how you think.
Ultimately, the possession of a conceptual scheme means we have a framework, which allows interpretation of experience where data enters via our senses and is interpreted by an a priori conceptual scheme.
Outline and illustrate the view that certainty is confined to introspection and the tautological
Introspection is when you are able to look within ones own mental states and processes and rationalists such as Descartes believe you can't doubt your own thoughts or experiences. Tautology is a statement in
which the same thing is repeated twice and comes in the form of an analytic proposition.
Beliefs based on introspection can be certain on the grounds that the proposition cannot be doubted. This is demonstrated by Descartes cognito sum `I think, therefore I am.' He uses an evil demon example where an
evil demon supposedly takes over your body and controls your sense experience. He says that if you are able to think to yourself in this situation it is enough to know you are.

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Tautological beliefs are ones which refer to analytic propositions where a statement is true in virtue of it's meaning. A perfect example of a tautological belief is `triangles have 3 sides' was it says the same thing twice
­ we know `tri' means three and the definition of `triangle' is a shape with 3 sides.
Ultimately, both provide an extent of certainty so neither can be doubted.…read more


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