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Slide 1

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Right Realists
Left Realists…read more

Slide 2

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Share a conservative, New Right political outlook and
support a `zero tolerance' stance on crime.…read more

Slide 3

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Right Realism
· See crime, especially street crime, as a growing problem
· Other theories have failed to solve the problem of crime
· Regard labelling theory and critical criminology as too
sympathetic to the criminal and hostile to the police and
· Mainly concerned with practical solutions to reduce crime
· The best solutions to reduce crime is through control and
punishment, rather than rehabilitation or tackling causes
such as poverty…read more

Slide 4

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The causes of crime
Biological differences
· Wilson and Hernstein ­ crime is caused by a combination
of biological and social factors
· Biological differences between individuals make some
people innately predisposed to commit crime
· Personality traits such as aggressiveness, risk-taking or
low intelligence are biologically determined
· Eval: Evidence for intelligence being biologically
determined is limited
· Lilly et al ­ differences in intelligence accounted for only
3% of the difference in offending…read more

Slide 5

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The causes of crime
The underclass
· Effective socialisation decreases the risk of offending by
teaching self-control and correct values
· Murray ­ generous welfare provision leads to growth of
benefit-dependent lone parent families, undermines the
nuclear family and encourages the growth of the
underclass who fail to socialise their children properly
· Absent fathers mean that boys lack discipline and an
appropriate role model, so they turn to delinquent role
models in street gangs and gain status through their crime
rather than through supporting their families…read more

Slide 6

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The causes of crime
Rational choice theory
· Assumes individuals are rational beings with free will
· Clarke ­ deciding to commit crime is choice based on a rational
calculation of the consequences, if the rewards of crime appear
to outweigh the costs, people are more likely to offend
· RR ­ crime rate is high because the perceived costs are low e.
g. lenient punishments and low risk of being caught
· Felson's routine activity theory ­ for crime to occur there must
be a motivated offender, suitable target and absence of suitable
guardian (policeman, neighbour)
· Offenders act rationally, presence of a guardian would deter
· Criminals = rational and free to choose crime but their
behaviour is also determined by their biology and socialisation?…read more

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