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Reading and writing…read more

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Phonics- children are systematically taught the
letters of the alphabet, and digraphs and
trigraphs and how these correspond to sounds
(phonemic-graphemic correspondence),
beginning with simple correspondences &
ending with more difficult graphemic
combinations such as `ough'. A phonics based
approach tends to teach letters of the alphabet
one by one by encouraging children to
discriminate between the separate sounds in
words by articulating them. Once children have
been taught the phonemic values of different
letter combinations they will then practise series
of words with these combinations. They will
then be shown how words are made up of…read more

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Analytical phonics
Children are taught to break words into their
smallest elements. The process usually begins
with the initial letters of words for instance by
using alphabet picture charts & cards. Words
similar patterns are used often. Rhyme is often
used to learn other words with similar patterns
beginning with words which follow a simple
consonant-vowel-consonant structure. Words
are read by separating them into smaller units.
Analytical phonics has proved the longest lived
of reading methods. It is relatively flexible &
can be used long term, often combined with
other approaches.…read more

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Synthetic phonics
Children learn longer phoneme-grapheme
correspondences- up to 44- rather than single
letters. As a result of applying this method,
children appear to recognise graphemes very
quickly. Graphemes are then blended with
other graphemes & phonemes to produce
words. Synthetic phonics is a short term &
intensive approach often used as whole class
work by teachers. An understanding of
synthetic phonics is usually sought before
children embark on reading schemes. This
means that learning methods have to be
especially engaging & are frequently
multisensory where children see each symbol,
listen to its sound, then use a physical action…read more

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Advantages of phonic methods
When children learn how words are built
they decipher words more easily & grasp
more quickly how words are spelt.
Essex schools project- found children who
learnt to read using phonics had a 6-7
month higher reading age.
Can be presented to children in a fun way
by using flashcards and games…read more

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Disadvantages of phonics methods
Early written & read lexis may have to be
confined to words where the sound-spelling
correspondences are straightforward.
Psycholinguist- frank smith- 1985- there are 211
different correspondences per 6,000 words so
learning phonics can be very complex & take a
long time.
Cognitive psychologist- Diane McGuiness- 1997-
`why are our children cant read'- there are 16
different syllable patterns in English. Some
spellings of common words such as
their/there/they're and see/sea are homophonic
& others such as the, any and tulip appear to
follow no logical rules. This can confuse children
who have been taught by the phonics method,…read more

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