Reactions of Alcohols

All of the reactions of alcohols, including:

- Elimination
- Oxidation and
- Esterification 

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REACTIONS OF ALCOHOLS
ELIMINATION
Elimination of Water (DEHYDRATION)
Reagent ­ concentrated Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4) or concentrated Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4)
Conditions ­ Reflux at 180ºC
Product ­ Alkene
e.g. C2H5OH (l) > CH2=CH2 (g) + H2O (l)
OXIDATION
Primary ­ Easily Oxidised to aldehydes and then to Carboxylic Acids.
Secondary ­ Easily Oxidised to Ketones.
Tertiary ­ NOT OXIDISED UNDER NORMAL CONDITION. They only break down with very vigorous oxidation.
PRIMARY FROM ALCOHOL TO ALDEHYDE
CH3CH2OH (l) + [O] > CH3CHO (l) + H2O (l)
Ethanol Ethanal
FROM ALDEHYDE TO ACID
CH3CHO (l) + [O] > CH3COOH (l)
TO OXIDISE AN ALCOHOL STRAIGHT TO AN ACID THE MIXTURE NEEDS TO BE REFLUXED.
THE ALCOHOL IS REFLUXED WITH ACIDIFIED POTASSIUM DICHROMATE (K2Cr2O7).
SECONDARY FROM ALCOHOL TO KETONE
CH3CHOHCH3 (l) + [O] > CH3COCH3 (l) + H2O (l)
ESTERIFICATION
Reagent ­ Carboxylic acid + strong acid catalyst (e.g. concentrated sulphuric acid)
Conditions ­ Reflux
Product ­ Ester
ALCOHOL + CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER + WATER (THE ...oate COMES FROM ACID)

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CH3CH2OH + CH3COOH CH3COOCH2CH3 + H2O
Ethyl Ethanoate The Ethanoate comes from the Acid.…read more

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