reaching a verdict, complete booklet

this is a break down of the entire reaching a verdict booklet.

HideShow resource information
Preview of reaching a verdict, complete booklet

First 294 words of the document:

REACHING A VERDICT ­ Section 1
PERSUADING A JURY
1. Order of testimony
2. Persuasion
3. Inadmissible evidence
1. ORDER OF TESTIMONY
Murdoch - conducted a lab study using word lists to see the primacy effect ­ concluded prosecution had
unfair advantage as they give evidence first which is more likely to be remembered
Glanzer ­ discovered primacy and recency effect existed when participants recalled word lists.
Therefore concluded most important evidence should be given at the start and end of a trial.
Order of testimony Study
1 of 3
Hastie ­ memory structure
Aim ­ whether or not the order in which evidence is given influences both the verdict reach and the
participant's confidence in their decision.
Participants ­ 130 students from Northwestern and Chicago Uni. Paid to participate in 1 hour
experiment.
Procedure ­ Participants in 1 of 4 conditions; guilty prosecution in story order, guilty prosecution in
witness order, non guilty defence in story order, non guilty defence in witness order
All participants listened to a tape recording of a stimulus trial and were asked to respond to written
questions and reach a verdict, as well as rate their confidence.
Findings ­
% who fund guilty verdict Defence story order Defence witness order
Prosecution story order 59 78
Prosecution witness order 31 63
Shows story order persuaded more jurors of guilt in the prosecution case.
Greatest level of confidence experience in prosecution and defence story order, lowest confidence in
witness order.
Conclusion ­ story order is best for both prosecution and defence in court
Understanding Statement ­ The study therefore shows that the order of a case does effect
prosecution outcome, and that story order is best for prosecution as it is more effective

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Evaluation issues;
Ecological validity ­ not real courtroom, no interaction
Generalizability
Reliability
Usefulness
Confidentiality ­ real case, names used
2. PERSUASION
Kraus and Sales ­ found that the jury were relatively unmoved by hearing expert witnesses talk about
the reliability of eyewitness testimonies.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Evaluation issues;
Validity ­ more than one variable
Generalisability ­ only student, demand characteristics
Usefulness
Ecological validity ­ low, watched video, not real courtroom setting
3. INADMISSABLE EVIDENCE
If evidence is found inadmissible the judge will direct the jury to disregard what has been said.
However drawing attention to it actually makes the jury pay more attention. Reactance theory ­
jurors perceive instructions to ignore evidence as undermining their freedom. May not take
evidence into account until it is ruled inadmissible.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Generalisability ­ only student, demand characteristics
Usefulness
Ecological validity ­ low, videotaped trial, not real courtroom setting…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

REACHING A VERDICT ­ Section 2
WITNESS APPEAL
1. Attractiveness of the defendant
2. Witness confidence
3. Effects of shields on children giving evidence
1. ATTRACTIVENESS OF DEFENDANT
Dion et al ­ HALO EFFECT ­ physically attractive people are assumed to have other attractive properties
Efran ­ good looking criminals received lighter sentences or penalties unless their looks were involved in
the crime. This is why a defendant is advised to turn up smartly dressed, clean and tidy to court.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Evaluation issues;
Ecological validity ­ mock trial, no interaction
Generalisability ­ uni students, demand characteristics
Reductionism -no cognitions or thoughts considered
Usefulness
2.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

SHIELDS FOR CHILDREN GIVING EVIDENCE
Children can give evidence behind screens or via video link if the case subject is sensitive. It is argued the
use of a shield makes it appear to the jury that the child is in need of protection, suggesting the
defendant is guilty
Shield Study
3 of 3
Ross
Aim ­
1. If the use of protective shields and videotaped testimony increases the likelihood of a guilty
verdict
2.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Psychological harm ­ child abuse case
REACHING A VERDICT ­ Section 3
REACHING A VERDICT
1. Stages and influences
2. Majority influence
3. Minority influence
1. STAGES AND INFLUENCES
Dion et al ­ HALO EFFECT ­ physically attractive people are assumed to have other attractive properties
Efran ­ good looking criminals received lighter sentences or penalties unless their looks were involved in
the crime. This is why a defendant is advised to turn up smartly dressed, clean and tidy to court.…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

Conclusion ­ decision rule didn't appear to affect verdict reached but did affect the quality of decision
making
Orientation period Relaxed and open discussion
Set agenda
Raise questions, explore facts
Opinions arise
Open confrontation Fierce debate
Focus on detail
Different interpretations
Pressure on minority
Support for group decision is established
Reconciliation Smooth over conflicts
Tension released through humour
Evaluation issues;
Ecological validity ­ based no real trial, acted by real officers, judges etc, real jury pool, real courtroom,
real jury room
Generalisability
Usefulness
2.…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

Participants agreed with the wrong answer on about third of trials
About 75% conformed at least once
A lot of stress experienced
Control trial with no confederates giving wrong answers found people made mistakes 1% of time
Conclusion ­ study shows impact that a majority can have on an individual.…read more

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all resources »