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Rates - How fast? - Revision
Mechanisms
SN2 ­ SUBSTITUTIONNUCLEOPHILIC 2nd Order mechanism




SN1 ­ SUBSTITUTIONNUCLEOPHILIC 1st Order mechanism

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Rate of Reaction
Measuring rate of reaction in an experiment

Colorimetery ­ the change in intensity of a colour in a reaction mixture with time, such as in
clock reactions.
Mass change ­ used when a gas is produced, the mass of the flask in which the reaction takes
place…

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Consider: A + B + C products

The experiment is repeated with the concentration of A doubled, but the concentrations of B and C
stay the same,

If the rate does not change (20), the reaction is 0 order with respect to A
If the rate doubles (21), the reaction…

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Catalysts
Homogeneous ­ same physical state as reactants
Heterogeneous ­ different physical state to reactants. Usually, a similar mechanism occurs in
almost all metal-catalysed gaseous reactions. The catalyst has active sites on its surface that
rapidly become saturated by reactants, which are then slowly converted into products.
These then leave…

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