PYA4, relationships

these are the note i started to write out on the computer, in blue are questions i asked my teacher (for the reference she said there was no need for elabration) and in red are the thing i need to do finish however i'm sure it's a good start for anyone wanting to write notes.

I included pictures to, so go for visual learners :), let me know what you think :D (Y)

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  • Created by: Becky
  • Created on: 04-04-09 22:13
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Physical attractiveness = important
o Positive traits associated; halo effect
Lighter criminal charges
Attractive teachers seen as nicer
Seen as materialistic
If crime related to attractiveness, worse sentences
Attractiveness leads to breeding success; evolutionary significance therefore men look
for women who are more fertile (younger looking etc)
Women look for the resources that men can provide, and kindness (to share resources),
This is due to parental investment because women put more into offspring (pregnancy
o Sexy son hypothesis supports this; Women prefer more masculine men during
menstrual cycle. This is because traditionally they could survive better in the wild
o CUNNINGHAM (86), male students rated photos of beauty contest finalists and
normal college students. When analysing the results it was found beauty contest
finalists had child features (widely spread a part eyes, small chins, and wide
Both theories can be applied universally!
Attractiveness is not everything;
Matching hypothesis; settle for partners who we perceive as similar attractiveness to
ourselves to avoid rejection
WALSTER (66), Computer dance experiment; students asked to fill in a
questionnaire to be matched, was in fact done randomly. Students evaluated
the date at the end and found attractiveness was the overriding factor. If a
choice matching was apparent.
Research supports matching hypothesis
Artificial, low in ecological validity as couples don't normally
meet that way
Subjective (based on opinion)
Matching occurs in real life couples, same sex friends.
[Other factors influencing interpersonal attraction]

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Sociobiological theories;
Relationships are adaptive (promotes survival and results in successful reproduction)
"Bargaining" done between men and women because interest of men to impregnate as
many women as possible however women can't therefore ensure healthy survival of offspring
Protect relatives so reproduce and can pass on genes (Fellner + Marshall; 86% to
offspring, 67% to parent, 50% to siblings said they would be a kidney donor)
[Dunbar + McGuiness, Dunbar + Waymforth]
Danger of generalising between humans and non humans
Claims…read more

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Social exchange theory;
Feelings depend on profits
Relationships expensive (time, effort, energy..) and we want to receive more out of it
Relationships bring rewards (attractiveness, resources, money + status)
2 types of couples
1. Exchange couples; record kept of who is ahead of relationship (selfish)
2. Communal couples; each partner has concern for the other
Equity theory;
Exchange of fair rewards.…read more

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Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love
Love consists of 3 components-
Passion; the drive that leads to physical attraction and sexual acts
Intimacy; the feeling of closeness (sharing of emotions etc)
Commitment; decision to love someone, and maintain that love
Believed type and strength of love was measured by strength of the 3 components.
Perfect balance often difficult to achieve therefore some components often missing.…read more

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Love as attachment (evolutionary)
Broad group of theories
Most mammals go through attachments and emotions that appear to be love
In the past 2 parents were better than one for survival
HAZAN + SHAFER (87) suggested different kinds of relationships are due to
childhood experiences. To test this they invented the love quiz which found
out peoples attachment type and style of love. Found secure types describe
love as happy and accepted partner regardless of faults.…read more

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Reasons for relationship breakdown: Duck (99)
External and behavioural factors: e.g. lack of time together, lack of stimulation, lack
of social skills
Personality traits: paranoia or distasteful habits
Ducks Model of Dissolution (88): (I. Don't. Sell. Grass)
1. Intra-psychic phase; where one of the partners becomes
2. Dyadic phase; confrontation to other partner, characterized by an
3. Social phase; up to this stage, problems generally kept private.…read more

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Individualism (Western societies); refers to cultures where the emphasis is on the individual.
Dependence is not seen as particularly desirable. "I" is seen as more important the "WE".
Importance on the rights and freedom of individual.
Collectivism; "WE" over "I". Ties within collectivist groups (family etc) are more important than
individual desires.…read more

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With less cities/ mobility in non-western society, arranged marriages make
sense, also 50% claim they do fall in love
In a sense, western marriages are arranged because we generally meet
people through family, friends etc however difference is we have the choice,
it is this choice why relationships are shorter
Western cultures marry for other factors than love (money, status, religion
etc) 50% of Americans say they married for reasons other than love.…read more

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Any research conducted on homosexual relationships has been done by going into gay
bars/neighbourhoods that are largely homosexual therefore only represent urban
Sensitive area therefore little agreement and lots of biast
Online relationships proceeds from online chats rooms etc, they can start as simple as talking
online but move to face to face contact etc.
3 different types of online relationships:
Never meet, just want sexual kicks. Don't believe it's cheating.
Get closer online, eventually change photos, numbers etc & meet up.…read more


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