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Asch -Controlled observation in lab experiment IV + -Lab environment has low ecological validity as
DV= cause-effect link difficult to generalise from artificial surrounding
-Extraneous Variable is controlled making it asked to conform when there is clearly a correc
more reliable answer.
-Easy to replicate due to standardised -Demand characteristics as pps may try and gue
procedures this increases the reliability. aim of the investigation changing their behavio
-Research was done in a time of high conformis
society 1950's America, Perrin and Spencer rep
the experiment in 1970's England and only 1 co
in 396 trials.
-Androcentric and Ethnocentric, hard to genera
findings to females and people of different cult
from different countries, this causes low popula
Milgram -Study can be generalised to women, culture -The study was taken out on all men making it
and environment as later studies done on androcentric and they were all American makin
women and other cultures yielded similar ethnocentric making it have a low pop validity h
results and then studies were done in a further studies on women, diff cultures and diff
naturalistic environment also giving similar environments showed similar results increasing
results causing a high pop validity. validity.
-No social desirability bias as the pps were told -Low ecological validity because the lab experim
it was a memory learning study not an artificial and had a low mundane realism as it w
obedience and destructive behaviour study unrealistic task which are both difficult to gene
which is less socially desirable. the real world.
-Ethical Issues, pps were debriefed and 84% -Ethical Issues, pps were deceived of the true n
were glad to have taken part in the study. the study, failed to protect the pps from physic
-Milgram's study stimulated a lot of research psychological harm, physical effects being effec
in area of obedience which is still relevant stress, seizures, high blood pressure, psycholog
today. being distress guilt and anxiety. Pps weren't allo
withdraw from the task.
Rahe et al -SRE was adapted scale appropriate for -Androcentric and Ethnocentric, hard to genera
military personnel, including items such as findings to females and people of different cult
being selected for promotion, this increases from different countries, this causes low popula
the reliability. validity.
-Double blind collection of medical data, -Generally a young age group making it hard to
means no demand characteristics or generalise to the rest of the pop causing low po
researcher bias. validity.
-Qs were quick and effective, collected lots of -Correlation does not mean causation, just beca
data compared to other methods such as variables correlate does not mean you have a
interviews. cause-effect link, cant conclude that the life eve
causes stress and that the stress causes illness,
possible for other factors to cause illness such a
existing natural level of anxiety which influence
impact of life events and therefore causes illnes
-SRE doesn't distinguish whether the person re
to the life event in a positive or negative way, k
of knowing if the life event is interpreted positi
whether illness will occur?
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SRE also doesn't distinguish individual differen
as how much financial or social support each pp
Gardener and -Produces rich, qualitative, detailed data about -Results can't be generalised as there was only
Gardener the study as a case study was the only subject and would be difficult to apply to a wid
practical method to use.…read more
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Bennet-Levy -Pps were unaware of study aims so wouldn't -Mean ratings showed disproportionate amoun
and Marteau change their behaviour so there were no for rats, due to potential harm, attempt to rem
demand characteristics. factor failed however positive in other animals.
-Independent groups design reduces order -Correlation does not mean causation, difficult
effects such as fatigue, boredom and practice, establish a cause effect link between variables s
causing the internal validity to increase.…read more
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Rosenhan -Study was covert, naturalistic, participant -Ethnocentric due to the investigation only bein
observation study ensured that all doctors, out in American hospitals different countries m
nurses, and patients behaved naturally so different procedures causing an overall low pop
there were no demand characteristics. -Lack of mundane realism, identifying fake patie
-A range of qualitative and quantitative data hospital setting is a lot different to assessing fak
was collected. Quantitative being how many patients in a court room.…read more