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Punishment


Reduction
Deterrence: Discourage individuals from committing offences again and makes an
example of them to the rest of the public.
Rehabilitation: Reform offenders so that they don't offend again.
Incapacitation: Remove offenders' capacity to offend again (imprisonment, cutting
off hands, execution).

Retribution
Punish crimes that have already been committed…

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Rusche and Kirchheimer ­ under capitalism, imprisonment becomes the
dominant form of punishment because the capitalism economy is based on
the exploitation of wage labour.
Melossi and Pavarini ­ imprisonment reflects capitalist relations of
production.
E.g. Capitalism puts a price on the workers time, so too prisoners `do time'
to…

Page 3

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punishment in itself, where prisoners would be reformed through hard labour,
religious instruction and surveillance.

IMPRISONMENT TODAY
In liberal democracies that do not have the death penalty, imprisonment is
regarded as the most severe form of punishment.
It has not proved an effective method of rehabilitation ­ 2/3 of prisoners…

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Transcarceration = product of blurring of boundaries between criminal
justice and welfare agencies.
E.g. health, housing and social services have increasing crime control role
and often work with police.


ALTERNATIVES TO PRISON
Diversion ­ used with young offenders ­ diverts them away from contact with
the C.J.S to avoid risk…

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