A summary of punishment - functionalist , marxist & folcault's perspective on the use of punishment.

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Rashida
  • Created on: 13-06-11 06:58
Preview of Punishment

First 274 words of the document:

Deterrence: Discourage individuals from committing offences again and makes an
example of them to the rest of the public.
Rehabilitation: Reform offenders so that they don't offend again.
Incapacitation: Remove offenders' capacity to offend again (imprisonment, cutting
off hands, execution).
Punish crimes that have already been committed rather than prevent future crimes.
Offenders deserve to be punished and society is entitled to take revenge on the
offender for having breached its' moral code.
Sociological perspectives on punishment
Functionalist perspective
Durkheim (1893) ­ the function of punishment is to uphold social solidarity and
reinforce shared values. Punishment is expressive ­ expresses society's outrage.
There are two types of justice ...
In traditional society ­ solidarity between individuals is based on their
similarity to one another.
Strong collective conscience ­ when offended responds with vengeful passion
to repress the wrongdoer.
Punishment ­ severe, cruel and expressive.
In modern society ­ solidarity is based on interdependence between
Crime damages interdependence ­ needs to be repaired
Punishment ­ makes restitution (restore things to how they were before) e.g.
compensation, still expressive.
Marxism: Capitalism & Punishment
Function of punishment is to maintain existing social order.
Repressive state apparatus.
Defends ruling-class property against the lower classes.
E.P. Thompson (1977) ­ 18th century punishments (hanging and
transportation to colonies) were part of a `rule of terror' by the landed
aristocracy over the poor.
Punishment reflects the economic base of society.
Punishment -1-

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Rusche and Kirchheimer ­ under capitalism, imprisonment becomes the
dominant form of punishment because the capitalism economy is based on
the exploitation of wage labour.
Melossi and Pavarini ­ imprisonment reflects capitalist relations of
E.g. Capitalism puts a price on the workers time, so too prisoners `do time'
to `pay' for their crime also the prison and capitalist factory both have a similar
strict disciplinary style involving subordination and loss of liberty.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

In liberal democracies that do not have the death penalty, imprisonment is
regarded as the most severe form of punishment.
It has not proved an effective method of rehabilitation ­ 2/3 of prisoners
re-offend on release.
Since 1980s politicians have sought electoral popularity by calling for tougher
Prison population has swollen to record size ­ between 1993 and 2005 prison
population grew by 70%.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Transcarceration = product of blurring of boundaries between criminal
justice and welfare agencies.
E.g. health, housing and social services have increasing crime control role
and often work with police.
Diversion ­ used with young offenders ­ diverts them away from contact with
the C.J.S to avoid risk of self-fulfilling prophecy turning them into serious
criminals. Focus on welfare and treatment ­ non-custodial & community based
controls (probation).
Community based controls ­ curfews, community service orders, treatment
orders and electronic tagging.…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all resources »