Psychopathology/Abnormality Revision Sheet

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psychopathology
definitions of abnormality ocd depression
statistical deviation: Numerically unusual characteristics: characteristics:
Behavioural: Compulsions that reduce anxiety + Behavioural: Lethargy or agitation, decreased/
behaviour or characteristics avoiding situations that trigger anxiety increased sleeping/eating, aggression + self-harm
Real-life application: simple means of assessing Emotional: Intense anxiety, depression, guilt + Emotional: Lowered mood, anger towards self +
patients disgust others, low self-esteem
Unusual characteristics can be positive and Cognitive: Obsessive thoughts, cognitive strategies Cognitive: Poor concentration, negative bias,
don't require treatment (e.g. prayer) and self-insight absolutist thinking
Not everyone unusual benefits from a label
e.g. low IQ
deviation from social norms: Social genetic explanations: Candidate genes e.g. cognitive explanations (BEck): Faulty
judgements about what is acceptable 5HT1-D Beta, polygenic, different combos = information processing, negative self-schemas,
Real-life application in diagnosing APD different forms of OCD negative triad (world, self + future)
What is normal in one culture may not be in Good supporting evidence: twin studies show Good supporting evidence: solid support that
another OCD is influenced by genes certain cognitions make us vulnerable to D
Other factors matter e.g. distress to others Too many candidate genes: so many genes Practical application in CBT: negative thoughts
Social norm approach maintains control over involved = little predictive value identified and challenged
minority groups Diathesis-stress model: environmental trigger Doesn't explain all aspects: cannot easily
failure to function adequately: Failing to is also required explain extremes of anger or hallucinations/
neural explanations: Low levels of serotonin delusions
cope w/ demands of everyday life e.g.
interpersonal rules linked to OCD, decision-making systems cognitive explanations (ellis): Activating
Attempts to include subjective experience of (frontal lobes and parahippocampal gyrus) may negative event, overreactive beliefs,
the individual be malfunctioning consequences to overreaction
Subjective judgements Good supporting evidence: Antidepressants Practical application in CBT: irrational
deviation from ideal mental health: Jahoda that work on serotonin system alleviate OCD thoughts can be identified and challenged
Not clear what mechanisms are involved: all Partial explanation: some cases of depression
considered normality rather than abnormality neural systems associated w/ OCD only follow life events but not all
e.g. no symptoms of distress, rational + involved in some cases Doesn't explain all aspects: cannot easily
accurate self-perception Shouldn't assume neural mechanisms cause explain extremes of anger or hallucinations/
Comprehensive definition: covers a broad OCD: neural abnormalities might be the delusions
range of criteria for mental health + help RESULT of OCD, not the CAUSE
Sets unrealistic standard for mental health: cBT: Beck's CT (aims to identify negative
abnormal to achieve all criteria for extended DRUG THERAPY: SSRIs, combining SSRIs with thoughts and challenge them) Ellis's REBT
period of time CBT or other drugs, or alternatives: (aims to identify irrational belief and challenge
clomipramine or SNRIs them). Behavioural activation includes
Effective at tackling symptoms: SSRIs superior techniques from CT and REBT but also
to placebos behavioural techniques
Cost-effective: compared to psychological Effective: significantly more effective than no
treatments treatment
Can have side-effects May not work for severe cases: not effective
when patients are too depressed to engage w/
therapy
phobias
characteristics:
Behavioural: Panic, avoidance/endurance
Emotional: Irrational + unreasonable fear + anxiety
Cognitive: Selective attention, irrational beliefs + cognitive distortions
Behavioural explanations: Two-process model (two processes of
conditioning), acquisition by classical conditioning (UCS produces fear
response), then maintenance by operant conditioning
Good explanatory power: explains how phobias can be both acquired and
maintained
Alternative explanation for avoidance: may be motivated more by seeking
safety than anxiety reduction
Incomplete explanation of phobias: cannot account for preparedness to
acquire phobias of some stimuli and not others
systematic desensitisation: Anxiety hierarchy (list of situations ranked for
how much anxiety they produce), relaxation then exposure
Effective: more effective than relaxation alone after 33 months
Diverse range of patients: e.g. appropriate for patents w/ learning difficulties
Acceptable to patients: patients prefer it to flooding so drop-out rates lower
flooding: Exposes patients to very frightening situation w/out build-up,
therefore extinguishing conditioned fear response
Cost-effective: more than systematic desensitisation and quicker
Less effective for some complex phobias (e.g. social)
Traumatic: drop-out rate is high so therefore it is ineffective

Comments

L.Brady

these sherets are really helpful- thank you!!

AS Resources

These are great !

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