Psychology Unit 3 Gender, relationships, eating disorders essay overviews

An overview of every essay in the Gender, Eating disorders and relationship section of the psychology unit 3 aqa a2 paper. 

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Discuss two or more
explanations of food
Information: Study: Evaluation:
Food preferences are - Davis (1928) Investigate the types - Findings formed the `wisdom of body' which
innate. Shown through of choices children make about their highlights innate food preferences.
studies observing babies diet. - High in ecological validity as it was an observation
and young children's - Offered them 10-12 healthy foods of a natural environment
facial expressions to - Results showed that children picked - High in internal validity as tightly controlled also
show that they prefer foods that were consistent with their - Methodological issues: Only healthy foods
sweet foods over bitter health and growth. offered, thus the results were exaggerated.
foods. - Historical context: More unhealthy foods for
offer, thus we are more influenced to eat
unhealthy food, which may not be consistent with
growth and health.
Taste Aversion. Our early - Garcia (1955) First studied this using - Animal studies cannot always be related to human
human ancestors lived rat which developed a taste aversion behaviour as they behave a lot differently than us.
off a diet consisting to poison. Generalisations made must be tentative.
mainly of berries, fruit,
vegetables and some - Spicy foods are initially rejected, yet across the
meet. Sometimes eat - Seligman (1970) proposed the idea world chilli is second only to salt, showing modified
food which is poisonous, of biological preparedness, in which preferences due to environmental and culture.
causing illness, thus different species have evolved to
causing an aversion learn certain associations more easily
than other to help improve survival.
This can explain food preferences
which develop after infancy
Cancer treatment. During Bernstein and Webster (1980) gave - Helps support the idea of `taste aversion' as it
the treatment of cancer patients a novel-tasting ice cream shows an association between certain foods and
gastrointestinal illness prior to chemotherapy. Afterwards illness.
and when this is paired the patients developed a taste - Led to the development of treatment to prevent
with food consumption, aversion to the novel-tasting ice taste aversion occur in this situation. Patients are
taste aversion can occur cream. now given a novel tasting food along with some
familiar food just prior to therapy, thus the patient
forms an aversion to the novel food and not the
familiar food
- Evolutionary
explanations could be
regarded as
oversimplification by
suggesting that
adaptiveness is the
single guiding principle.
- Deterministic as
proposes eating
behaviour is determined
by past environments,
thereby ignoring the
notion of free will and
the influence of present
day cultural and
environmental factors.

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Discuss attitudes
towards food and/or
eating behaviour
Information: Study: Evaluation:
Moods: One explanation Garg et al (2007) In his group of 38 ps - People who watched the sad film wanted a nice
see's eating behaviour they either watched a happy or sad tasting, indulgent, quick snack to help diminish their
as a temporary escape film. While watching they were low moods
from negative moods.…read more

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NPY and fats cells and
so on.
Dual centre model of
feeding also seems to
deny us free-will,
because it assumes that
we will respond to a
However we can
sometimes override our
physiological drive to eat
in the cases of eating
Suggest that neural
explanations are not
sufficient enough to
explain eating and
satiation.…read more

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AN yet
this could still be argued
as reductionist for
ignoring the role of
biological influences.
Discuss research into
the success or failure of
Information: Study: Evaluation:
Restraint theory: Herman - Wardle and Beale (1988) Sample of - Supports a causal link between dieting and
and Mack (1975) 27 obese women, randomly assigned overeating.
Explains both to either a diet group, exercise group - Experimental design, as a result comparisons can
consequences and or a control group for 7 weeks.…read more

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SRRIs. This has been
supported by research which found that SRRIs
prevent relapse in recovering AN patients.
Dopamine: Individuals Kaye et al used PET scans to compare - This research would suggest that increased
with AN find it difficult to dopamine activity in the brains of 10 dopamine activity in this area appears to alter the
associate good feelings women recovering from AN and 12 way people interpret rewards.
with things most people healthy controls.…read more

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Money suggested that - Milton Diamond challenged Money's theory and
biological influences. he should be reared as a girl. argued research shows the importance of pre and
- Other twin allowing a control peri-natal sex hormones on gender identity. In
sample for comparison. David's case he shared the same prenatal
- Money first published his results in a environment as his brother thus supporting
positive light stating that if gender Diamonds theory and rejecting moneys.…read more

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Archival data is a permanent record which makes
aggressiveness and men and women. it possible for other researchers to assess the
competitive dominance. reliability.…read more

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Little mention of
biological factors, when
they can explain the
division of labour better.
Describe and Evaluate
explanations for gender
Information: Study: Evaluation:
Division of Labour: - Kuhn and Stiner (2006) suggest that - Although this is a plausible explanation, there are
Enhanced reproductive division of labour helped us to others for their disappearance such as climate
success and also helped survive whereas the Neanderthals change and we cannot solely suggest that the
avoid starvation as didn't as there was no divide.…read more

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Acquire new behaviours on gender development. They found - Bandura did not deny the role of biological
by observing other that children imitated same-sex factors in social learning; starting point for social
people and imitating this. model behaviours, as long as the learning knows what sex you are.
behaviour was not counter to gender
- Modelling: involves stereotypes.
cognitive representations
of the modelled activities
and abstractions of the
underlying rules of the
modelled behaviour.…read more

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Variations of gender Mead (1935) Conducted a classic - Suggests cultural relativism, some behaviour is
roles: Shown through study on social groups in Papua New innate and universal but the degree to which these
meads study Guinea. behaviours are expressed is relative to the
Arapesh= Gentle, cooperative, and particular culture.…read more


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