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Memory

Multi-Store Memory Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin)

*Stores are unitary and separate
*Information transferred by rehearsing
*It is sequential

Information from our 5 senses, incoming information we can hold in our sensory memory but it is lost
through decay after 2-3 seconds if we don't pay attention to the information…

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Found that the short term memory can hold information up to 30 seconds, unless the information is
rehearsed and transferred into our long term memory.



Conrad - Ecoding
Conrad concluded that items are stored in our short term memory in acoustic codes even when
presented visually.

Bradimonte et al (1992)…

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Working Memory Model (Baddley & Hinch)


Central Executive




Episodic Buffer




Long ­Term Memory


The central Executive has no storage capacity; it allocates information to either slave system. The
episodic buffer was added by Baddley later on in 2000, it is a temporary storage it also allows
information to flow to…

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Eyewitness Testimony

Schemas ­ We store memories in terms of schemas, they are mental frameworks (based on past
experiences)

Eyewitness Testimony ­ Evidence given by someone who has seen an incident of a crime, inaccurate
eyewitness testimony can lead to wrongful convictions.

Bartlett (1932)
According to Bartlett when we store…

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Age of witness and effect on memory

Parker & Carranza (1989)
Found that children were more likely to make errors than college students when shown a mock crime.

Dekle et al (1996)
Found children were more willing to identify a criminal in a line up than adults, but often ID…

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1. Report Everything ­ Even minimal details it can trigger memories and information
2. Reinstate The Context ­ Recreate the mental scene of the crime using all 5 senses
3. Change The Order ­ Recall the event in a different order eg. End to beginning
4. Change The Perspective ­…

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