Psychology unit 1 spec A - Memory

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Memory
Multi-Store Memory Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin)
*Stores are unitary and separate
*Information transferred by rehearsing
*It is sequential
Information from our 5 senses, incoming information we can hold in our sensory memory but it is lost
through decay after 2-3 seconds if we don't pay attention to the information it won't transfer too
our short-term memory which will hold between 5 and 9 items for up to 30 seconds before it is lost
through decay/displacement. It will then be transferred to our long-term memory if the information
is rehearsed it then will potentially last a lifetime and the capacity is unlimited, unless the information
is lost through decay/interference.
Attention Rehearsal
External Stimulus Sensory STM LTM
(5 senses) Decay Displacement Inference
3 stores for the sensory memory:
-Haptic (touch)
-Iconic (visual)
-Echoic (auditory)
Capacity
Sensory ­ 2-3 seconds
STM ­ 7+/-2 (Jacobs)
LTM- unlimited
Duration
STM ­ 30 seconds (Peterson & Peterson)
LTM ­ lifetime
Ecoding
STM ­ acoustically (Conrad)
LTM ­ semantically
Sperling (1960) ­ Supports duration of sensory memory
Participants were shown 12 letters/digits in 3 rows, exposure lasted 50 milliseconds. If they were
asked to recall all 12 items recall was about 42%. If they were told immediately afterwards to just
recall one row, recall was 75%. This shows that information in sensory memory disappears very
quickly.
Short-Term Memory ­ Supporting Studies
Jacobs (1887) - Capacity
Found that we could recall between 5 and 9 items in our short term memory, he concluded that the
short term memory has a limited capacity and came up with 7+/-2 to simplify the term.
Peterson & Peterson - Duration

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Found that the short term memory can hold information up to 30 seconds, unless the information is
rehearsed and transferred into our long term memory.
Conrad - Ecoding
Conrad concluded that items are stored in our short term memory in acoustic codes even when
presented visually.…read more

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Working Memory Model (Baddley & Hinch)
Central Executive
Episodic Buffer
Long ­Term Memory
The central Executive has no storage capacity; it allocates information to either slave system. The
episodic buffer was added by Baddley later on in 2000, it is a temporary storage it also allows
information to flow to and from long term memory. The `inner ear' remembers speech sounds. The
`inner voice' repeats any verbal input in a loop of about two seconds to prevent it from decaying.…read more

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Eyewitness Testimony
Schemas ­ We store memories in terms of schemas, they are mental frameworks (based on past
experiences)
Eyewitness Testimony ­ Evidence given by someone who has seen an incident of a crime, inaccurate
eyewitness testimony can lead to wrongful convictions.
Bartlett (1932)
According to Bartlett when we store information we don't store an exact replica; we store a general
idea. We recall information, we engage in a process of reconstructing the information to fit in with
our own past experiences.…read more

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Age of witness and effect on memory
Parker & Carranza (1989)
Found that children were more likely to make errors than college students when shown a mock crime.
Dekle et al (1996)
Found children were more willing to identify a criminal in a line up than adults, but often ID the wrong
person.
Older people and effect on memory
Karpel et al (2001)
Found younger people (17-25) were able to give more accurate information about a robbery than
older people (65-85).…read more

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Report Everything ­ Even minimal details it can trigger memories and information
2. Reinstate The Context ­ Recreate the mental scene of the crime using all 5 senses
3. Change The Order ­ Recall the event in a different order eg. End to beginning
4. Change The Perspective ­ Recall the event from someone else's perception
1 & 2 provide clues to the crime that could trigger more information
3 & 4 is based on the idea that they are several retrieval paths
3.…read more

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