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Developmental Psych

1. The Learning Theory
The theory that all behaviour is learnt. Specifically all animals learn through classical and operant
conditioning.

Classical conditioning ­ ASSOCIATION. For example, if someone was scared of loud noises but not of
cats... every time they see a cat, make a loud noise, they…

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2. The Evolutionary Theory
The theory that tendency to form attachments is innate in both infants and mothers. Evolution is the
process whereby useful features are introduced into a species.

There are 5 features that explain this theory. A S C M I !!!!

Adaptive
Attachment promotes survival in a…

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3. The Strange Situation
A method to assess the strength of attachment. It is conducted in an artificial environment in order to
assess the infants response to situations of anxiety. The SS tests:

Separation anxiety (shown when an infant is separated from caregiver)
Stranger anxiety (shown when infant is left…

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Reliable ­ has been repeated many times
Provided research into attachment
No demand characteristics from infant
Predicted validity ­ applications to later life
Support the role of responsiveness from Schaffer and Emerson ­ child attached to parent who is
most responsive

Ecologically invalid ­ child may not behave the same…

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Takahashi (1990)

Study: Used the SS to study 60 middle class Japanese infants and their mothers.

Findings: Similar rates of secure attachment as in Ainsworth's American sample but no evidence
of insecure-avoidant, just high rates of insecure-resistance (32%). The infants were very stressed
when mother leaves.

Discussion: In Japan, infants…

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Robertson and Bowlby studied the effects on children of short term separation - PDD




Pros/cons of PDD

Suggests/proves that it is important not to separate a child from its carer whenever possible.
Shows that children who receive foster care do better than children who receive institutional
care
There are lots…

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Case studies of children raised in extreme isolation
Longitudinal studies of children in institutional care

Case studies:

Kovulchova (1976)

Early life: Twin boys suffered from extreme privation from 18 months to 7 years. Their mother
died at child birth and therefore they were in a children's home for 11 months…

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Tizard and Hodges (1984/1989)

Study: Longitudinal, natural study of 65 participants who had been placed in an institution when
they were less than 4 months old. There was an explicit policy in the institution against caregivers
forming attachments with the children. By the age of 4 years, 24 of the…

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Nursery Based Care
Parents are entitled to free nursery places for all children aged three years and above. Nurseries are staffed
by trained workers and may be attached to a primary school, often gaining benefits from using the school
facilities. They are inspected by Ofsted and are required to plan…

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Findings: Positive correlation between amount of time spent in day care and amount of time
spent playing co-operatively with other children.

Discussion: This is a correlational study ­ so need to be cautious whether its correlation or
causation. Co-operative play generally increases as children get older and more able to…

Comments

arianator 4 life

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hope you can make one for research methods and memory 

that would be a big help 

thanks

Aiste - Team GR

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this is amazing :) very easy to revise from 

MrsMacLean

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really detailed, a great revision guide 

Kortn33

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could you include more evaluation points please, otherwise this was really helpful

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