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NATURAL ­ more natural, people will act how they would in day to day life, cannot
control extraneous variables. Is not manipulated by the experimenter
Advantages ­ Ethical
Disadvantages ­ participant allocation ( cant allocate ppt to each setting) cant say what
caused what, rare for events to occur naturally, ethics ­ deception
LABORATORY ­ A lot more control, able to do variations of experiment (change
independent variable) , artificial setting
Advantages ­ control, replication, casual relationships(determine if A causes B)
Disadvantages ­ artificial, demand characteristics, ethics(often deceive people)…read more

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FIELD ­ behaviour is measured in a natural environment like a school, key variable is
altered so its effect can be measured.
Advantages ­ Casual relationships(difficult to do), ecological validity(less artificial),
Demand characteristics can be avoided if don't know they're in a study.
Disadvantages ­ Less control(extraneous variables), ethics(don't agree to be in)
NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION ­ observing subjects in natural environment
Advantages ­ Ecological validity(no demand characteristics), theory development
(developing ideas to be tested later)
Disadvantages ­ Extraneous variables, observer bias, ethics (hard to get informed consent
and debrief)…read more

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· Encoding = transforming incoming information into a form which can be
stored in memory
· Capacity = the amount of space which is available to hold information
· Duration = the length of time the memory store holds information
The multi-store model shows memory as a series of separate stores with information
being moved between stores in a linear way. Each store is different in capacity, duration
and encoding.
Sensory Short-term Long term
First information enters the sensory memory, where it is stored in each of the sensory
systems for a very short time. If attention is paid to it, it passes to short term memory.....…read more

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