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· Understand the idea that individuals are unique
Unique means oneoff and cannot be repeated individual.
· Explain the concept of free will
Free will is being able to decide an action, uninfluenced by other factors such as genetic or social.
Core Theory: Humanistic Theory
· Distinguish between selfconcept and ideal self in relation to self esteem
Selfconcept is how we view ourselves. Ideal self is how we want to be like and selfesteem is how
much we value ourselves. If there is a big gap between selfconcept and idealself then that would lead
to low selfesteem.
· Explain the idea of unconditional positive regard
Unconditional positive regard is showing love and affection without expecting anything in return. You are
there to support the other, and help them feel good about themselves.
· Explain the idea of selfactualization
Selfactualisation is the idea of each individual having an inborndrive. This makes them want to fulfill
· Explain the criticisms of humanism as an explanation of the self
Ignores the scientific ideas. For example, children are born unique because they do not have identical
It focuses too much on the individual. They don't mention the scientific explanation of being unique and
Humanistic theory can be subjective because it is difficult to measure selfconcept and idealself.
· Consider trait theory as an alternative theory, with specific reference to extraversion and
Trait theory is an alternative theory to humanistic theory. This argues that `the self' is natural and nature
has an impact on it. According to Eynsenck, personality is genetic and it has an biological explanation. If
we are moody, then we are born that way.
Eysenck says that there are four groups. Introversion being quiet and reserved, Extraversion being
outgoing and sociable, Neuroticism being moody and anxious, and stable being emotionally stable.
· Describe Van Houtte and Jarvis' interviews about pet ownership amongst adolescents
Aim of this study was to see whether owning pets can affect selfesteem.
Method used was questionnaires. The adolescents were divided into two groups, petowners and
nonpetowners. In those two groups, they were divided again, into three different groups by looking at:
their parent's marital status, socioeconomic status and how many brothers and sisters they had.
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They were told to fill in a questionnaire and they had to rate their autonomy, their selfesteem and their
attachment to their pets.
Results showed that adolescents who were petowners had high selfesteem, autonomy and attachment
to pets. This show that pets may give unconditional positive regard therefore their petowners end up
with high selfesteem because they have responsibility.…read more